Dear reader of, please excuse the disruption. needs about $63500 in 2024. In 2023 we received donations of about $ 32200. Unfortunately, 99.8% of our readers do not donate. If everyone who reads this request makes a small contribution, our fundraising campaign for 2024 would be over after a few days. This donation request is displayed 23,000 times a week, but only 75 people donate. If you find useful, please take a minute and support with your donation. Thank you!

Since 01.06.2021 is supported by the non-profit ADxS e.V..

$8975 of $63500 - as of 2024-02-29
Header Image
Consequences of ADHD

Consequences of ADHD

Untreated ADHD not only has acute behavioral symptoms, but also has massive long-term consequences that often affect the entire life of those affected.

Health effects

  • Reduced life expectancy of 9 to 13 years possible
  • Increased risk of suicide, (traffic) accidents, serious injuries and broken bones
  • Increased risk of crime and violence

Comorbid diseases

  • Psychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder more common
  • Physical illnesses such as respiratory diseases, infections and addictions more common

Behavioral problems and social consequences

  • Increased risk behavior and a higher risk of becoming a victim of abuse and bullying
  • Educational problems and occupational disadvantages, including poorer educational opportunities, reduced school performance, lower employability and lower income

Advantages of drug treatment

  • Medications such as stimulants and atomoxetine not only improve symptoms, but also protect against the risks mentioned above
  • They improve the quality of life of those affected and reduce the need for medical treatment and healthcare costs

Economic impact on society

  • ADHD sufferers have a lower income and pay less tax and social security contributions
  • They cause higher health and education costs as well as damage due to absenteeism, unemployment, occupational disability and crime

1. Consequential risks of ADHD

ADHD sufferers have to put up with massive restrictions in their quality of life.
Untreated / inadequately treated ADHD has a massive impact on a person’s entire life,12 e.g:

1.1. Life expectancy shortened by 9 to 13 years

  • Life expectancy reduced by 9 to 13 years3, possibly due to genetic causes.4

  • 1.27- to 4.6-fold premature mortality. Depending on the study, between 1.27-fold (boys and men),5 2.85-fold (girls and women),5 1.4-fold (children and adolescents) and more than 4.6-fold (in adults),6 in particular due to accidents.789101112131415

  • With the number of additional comorbidities, the probability of premature death increases up to 25-fold.616

  • 4.25-fold risk of premature mortality when first diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood.5

  • 2.4-fold risk of suicide in ADHD overall, especially in women17 (up to 4.1-fold suicide risk). Correspondingly higher for untreated ADHD.1819

  • Suicide rate increases20 to 2.3 times21 to 2.9 times22

  • Suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts increased23

    • But not in veterans with ADHD24
  • 2-fold risk of falling victim to murder25

1.2. More frequent accidents and injuries

1.2.1. Injuries

  • Injuries increased2627
    • By 41 % for young adults28
    • By 250 % for children and adolescents29
  • Risk of bone fractures
    • increased by 60 % for girls 30
    • increased by almost 40 % in boys 30
    • Stress fractures increased by 17 %.31
  • Concussions
    • Twice as common in children between the ages of 11 and 14 with ADHD32
    • More frequent, with simultaneously prolonged healing time; healing time is normalized by stimulants33
  • Head injuries due to some types of accidents in ADHD up to more than twice34 to more than three times as often35
  • Children with eye injuries were 3.5 times more likely to have ADHD than children without eye injuries.36
  • Self-harming behavior
    • Intentional self-poisoning increased 4.65 times37

1.2.1. Traffic accidents and accident damage

  • Children with ADHD show riskier behavior when crossing the road38
  • 40% of drivers with ADHD had at least 2 accidents, compared to 6% of unaffected drivers.39
  • 60% of drivers with ADHD had an accident with personal injury, compared to 17% of unaffected drivers.39
    • this is more likely to be due to comorbid ODD and/or CD. A meta-study found a 23% higher accident rate for ADHD itself.40
  • The amount of damage suffered by drivers with ADHD was almost three times as high as the amount of damage suffered by unaffected drivers.39
  • Drivers with ADHD lost their driver’s license three times as often as unaffected drivers. This could also result from an impaired ability to defend themselves in court due to disorganization.39
  • 2.74 times the risk of car accidents with injuries in people aged 65 and over41
  • Riskier driving behavior42
  • More errors in driving simulators, especially with executive function problems43

A meta-analysis of 16 studies showed:40

  • the accident risk for drivers with ADHD is 23% higher
  • this corresponds to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • People with ADHD apparently drive more often than those without, which is why the actual figure is more likely to be below 23%
  • the claim of an almost fourfold accident risk from a study by Barkley et al. (1993) is probably due to comorbid ODD and/or CD. It cannot be held for ADHD itself.
  • ADHD sufferers are cautioned more frequently for speeding, but not more frequently for drunk or reckless driving

1.3. Frequent perpetrator and victim of violence and bullying

A meta-study of 14 studies with 1,111,557 subjects found a higher risk for ADHD sufferers with regard to:44

  • Violence in the relationship
    • as perpetrator (6 studies, OR 2.5 = approx. + 150 %)
      • according to another source, people with ADHD are 6.4 times more likely to be perpetrators of domestic violence than people without ADHD.45
    • as victim (4 studies, OR 1.78 approx. + 78 %)
  • Sexualized violence
    • as perpetrator (3 studies, OR 2.73 approx. + 273 %)
    • as victim (6 studies, OR 1.84 approx. + 84 %); 1 new study, OR 2.01, approx. + 100 %46

Studies report an increased risk of child abuse.47

Children with ADHD report being bullied three times as often as children without ADHD.48

1.4. Higher crime rate

  • 4.8-49 to 9-fold risk of ending up in prison due to crime50
  • Arrests increased by 105 %51

A number of studies have identified a massively increased rate of ADHD among prison inmates.

  • Up to 72% of prison inmates in Asian, Western European and North American countries have been diagnosed with ADHD52
  • 14 % to 45 %5354
  • 25 %55
  • 17.3 %56 of juvenile prisoners
  • 31 %57 of juvenile detainees
  • 25 % of all prisoners in the USA58
  • 28 % of all prisoners in the USA59
  • 17.5 % of 244 prisoners examined (n = 244)60
  • 27.6 % of 146 sex offenders examined (n=146, WURS 90 points)60
  • 22 % of patients in forensic psychiatry (n = 86)61
  • 9.1 % of 55 Irish prisoners examined62
  • 17% of all young men serving time for minor to moderate offenses in Lithuania.63 The ADHD-affected inmates were younger and had major behavioral problems in prison. None of them had previously received an ADHD diagnosis.
  • 20 to 30 % of all young adult prison inmates.64

As a result, the crime rate among ADHD sufferers is massively increased.

  • Hyperactive people have significantly higher arrest rates:65
    • Young people (46% compared to 11%)
    • Adults (21 % compared to 1 %)
  • 19% of ADHD sufferers had committed crimes, 0% in the control group66

Interestingly, amphetamines are the drugs most commonly used by prison inmates with ADHD.67 Amphetamine is known to be an active ingredient in highly effective ADHD medication.

A study on the correlation of ADHD symptoms and criminogenic thinking found that68

  • Carelessness was consistently and strongly associated with criminogenic mindsets, especially with
    • Cutoff
    • Cognitive inertia
    • Discontinuity
  • Impulsivity correlated positively with criminogenic thinking, namely with
    • Power orientation
  • Hyperactivity was not associated with criminogenic thinking.

ADHD medication reduced the crime rate of ADHD sufferers69

  • For men by 31 %
  • By 41 % for women

1.5. Comorbid health problems

There is evidence that ADHD has a causal effect for an increased risk of:70

  • severe clinical depression
  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Suicide attempts
  • Anorexia nervosa

There was no evidence of a causal relationship between ADHD and70

  • bipolar disorder
  • Fear
  • Schizophrenia

1.5.1. Mental illnesses

Increased probability of inpatient psychiatric treatment. Among 166 psychiatric inpatients, 59% were found to have ADHD.71 Neurodegenerative diseases

Up to 5-fold increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases.72 Dementia (up to 6-fold)

The overall risk of dementia is 4 times higher.73

Vascular dementia causes severe cognitive impairment that interferes with daily functioning and can be diagnosed by imaging techniques.
People with ADHD have a 6-fold higher risk of vascular dementia7374 regardless of other risk factors for vascular dementia, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and stroke.
The reason for the increased risk of vascular dementia could be the significantly poorer cardio- and cerebrovascular health of adults with ADHD.

The risk of Lewy body dementia / Lewy body dementia is only 6% higher with ADHD.74 In contrast, the same group of authors cited a significantly increased risk of Lewy body dementia with ADHD in an earlier publication.72
People with Lewy body dementia are 5.1 times more likely to have an ADHD diagnosis, regardless of age and gender.75 Parkinson’s (up to 2.5-fold)

Parkinson’s disease (1.5 to 2.5 times)74
Parkinson’s sufferers are 3.7 times more likely to have ADHD, regardless of age and gender.74 Alzheimer’s disease

People with Alzheimer’s have 4.9 times the risk of ADHD, regardless of age and gender.75
One study found a correlation between the ADHD-PRS (Polygenic Risk Score) and Alzheimer’s disease76
In a Swedish cohort study, parents of ADHD sufferers showed a 55% increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The risk was even lower in grandparents77 Depression (up to 5.5-fold)
  • 5.5 times the risk of a major depressive episode before adulthood. 50% of all ADHD sufferers have one.78
  • Depression increases79
  • 4.12-fold risk (very large study, n = 1,250,000)80
  • 2.5-fold81 to 4-fold risk of depression in girls
  • ADHD in children increases the risk of depression in adolescence.82
  • Comorbidities further increase risk
    • 7.9-fold risk of clinically relevant depression symptoms with ADHD and a concussion suffered83 Eating disorders (3.6-fold)
  • 3.6 times the risk of eating disorders in girls84
  • Obesity (2-fold risk)3 Anxiety disorders (up to 3.3 times)
  • 1.2 to 3.3 times the risk of anxiety disorders. Lifetime prevalence 10 - 15 % overall population,85 12 to 50 % for ADHD19
  • Comorbidities further increase risk
    • 16.4-fold risk of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms in ADHD and a concussion suffered83 Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD (2.4-fold)

ADHD sufferers have 2.37 times the risk of suffering post-traumatic stress disorder as their non-ADHD-diagnosed siblings.86

1.5.2. Behavioral peculiarities

  • Increased risk behavior87

  • More frequent victims of physical and non-physical sexual abuse88

1.5.3. Physical illnesses

  • Increased risk of most physical diseases (34 [97%] of 35 diseases examined), regardless of gender89 Respiratory diseases (up to 3.2-fold)
  • Diseases of the respiratory tract (2.4 to 3.2 times the risk), mainly genetically caused, e.g:
    * Asthma
    * Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Infections (up to 2.8-fold)
  • Infections increased in childhood90
    - Salmonellosis (180 % more frequent)
    - Acute respiratory tract infections (40% more frequent)
    - Acute gastroenteritis (30 % more frequent)
    - Urinary tract infections (30 % more frequent)
    - All anti-infectives were prescribed significantly more frequently to children with ADHD
    - The number of visits to the doctor was significantly higher for children with ADHD. Risk of addiction (up to 2.3-fold)
  • Increased alcohol consumption23
  • Smoking more often2391929379
    • 2.35-fold9495 to 8.61-fold risk of smoking.96 Adults with ADHD have a 40% (OR 1.4)97 to 50% increased risk of smoking (OR = 1.5).98 Conversely, young adult smokers are twice as likely to have ADHD.99
    • Adolescents with ADHD have a doubled (OR = 2)98 to tripled95 risk of smoking
    • One study found no link between ADHD symptoms and smoking100
  • Increased marijuana consumption91
  • 1.77 times the risk of substance dependence (addiction)96
    The majority of studies on ADHD and alcohol abuse find a positive correlation.101 Birth complications in mothers with ADHD (up to 1.8-fold)

Among 45,737 pregnant women with ADHD compared with 42,916 women without ADHD, mothers with ADHD were found to have higher rates of almost every type of birth complication, most of which were 1.2 to 1.8 times more likely to occur.102 Stroke risk (up to 1.4 times)
  • Increased risk of stroke103
    * Risk of ischemic stroke increased by 15
    * Risk of large-artery atherosclerotic stroke increased by 40 Slightly elevated blood pressure in old age

ADHD in childhood correlated with an average increase of 3.5 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 2.2 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure at the age of 4597 COVID-19 risk higher, progression more difficult

ADHD and Tourette’s are associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and a more severe course of COVID-19.104

1.6. More teenage pregnancies

  • 2.3 times the risk of early pregnancy in untreated adolescents with ADHD. Teenage pregnancies are 27% more common in untreated ADHD. With treated ADHD, the risk is significantly reduced.105
  • 42 times as many maternities up to the age of 20 as non-affected persons (doubtful - data could not be verified so far)39

1.7. Educational disadvantages

  • Poorer educational opportunities79
    • 94% of children with ADHD have school problems (according to parent reports)106
    • University degrees 27 % less frequent51
    • School-leaving qualifications 11 % less frequent51
    • Lower educational qualifications23
    • Rare Bachelor’s degree107
    • More school absences (diagnosed ADHD, including ADHD treated with medication)108
      • Up to 10 years: 7 %
      • 11 to 14 years: 24 %
      • 15 years and older: 23 %
    • More school exclusions (diagnosed ADHD, including ADHD treated with medication)108
      • 4.97-fold in the quintile with highest deprivation
      • 14.75-fold in the quintile with lowest deprivation
      • 5.4-fold for boys
      • 9.42-fold for girls
    • Increased special educational needs (diagnosed ADHD, including ADHD treated with medication)108
      • Mental health 52.85 times
      • Social, emotional and behavioral disorders 19.97 times
      • Autism spectrum disorder 13.72 times
      • Learning disability 8.10-fold
      • Physical health 6.97 times
      • Physical or motor impairment 6.28 times
      • Learning difficulties 5.44 times
      • Communication problems 4.78-fold
      • Sensory impairment 3.62-fold
    • In the long term, ADHD causes reduced emotional engagement at school, which is additionally moderated by student-teacher conflicts.109
    • A high polygenic risk score110
      • For ADHD correlated with lower grades in language and math
      • For anorexia nervosa or bipolar disorder correlated with better grades in language and math
      • For schizophrenia and major depression showed variable influence on school grades
      • For autism spectrum disorders had no influence on school grades

1.8. Professional disadvantages and loss of income

Significant professional disadvantages are a frequent consequence of ADHD107

  • Job changes increased by 5951
  • Fewer full-time jobs, more part-time jobs
    • Women (in Japan) with ADHD appear to be even more likely to have only a part-time job than men with ADHD.111
  • Employment rate reduced by 2851
  • 3 times the risk of losing a job39
  • Higher layoff rate 1.1 vs 0.3 jobs/time112
  • Frequent job changes 2.7 vs 1.3 jobs/ 2- 8 y SE112 especially in old age113
  • Poorer evaluations in the workplace112
  • Not in employment, education or training 6 months after leaving school108
    • Total 1.39-fold
    • Boys 1.40 times
    • Girls 1.59 times
  • one and a half times as often impaired work ability (approx. 30% compared to approx. 20% for those not affected)114
  • No full participation in the labor market, especially for: (using Sweden as an example)115
    • Elementary school as the highest educational qualification (OR: 4.03)
    • comorbid mental disorders (OR: 2.77)
    • living in villages/small towns (OR: 1.77)
    • Men less often than women (OR: 0.55)

Translated with (free version)

1.9. Reduced quality of life

  • Reduced quality of life87
    • Health-related QoL significantly reduced116
  • 4-fold increased risk of reduced length growth and lower weight gain at 8 and 10 years. Stimulant treatment increased this risk.117
  • ADHD in childhood predicts emotional problems later in life. These are genetically transmitted.118
  • Life dissatisfaction is a typical consequence of ADHD.

According to a study with n = 1000 participants, ADHD leads to a considerable reduction in life satisfaction (quality of life) in adulthood.119 In the areas of

  • Family life
  • Partnership
  • Social life
  • Integration into society
  • Health and fitness
  • Professional life
  • Achieving life goals

aDHD sufferers scored on average around 20 % lower than non-affected people.

In adults with the highest 10% of ADHD symptom severity according to ADHD-E, stress due to general life dissatisfaction occurred 4.10 times more frequently and stress due to lack of social support 3.3 times more frequently than in those not affected.120121

1.10. Divorces / separations more frequent

  • Divorces
    • Increased by 8751
    • Women (in Japan) with ADHD seem to have an even higher divorce rate than men with ADHD.111
  • 3 to 5 times the risk of separation and divorce19

1.11. Moving more often

Adults with ADHD move 2.35 times as often as those without.113

2. Protective effect through ADHD treatment

ADHD medication reduces the risks of ADHD symptoms and secondary effects. According to a meta-study, medication with stimulants reduces the aforementioned risks by 9 to 59%122

A meta-study of 40 studies found a robust protective effect of ADHD medications in relation to123

  • Mood disorders
  • Suicidal tendencies
  • (Car) accidents
  • Injuries
  • Traumatic brain injuries
  • Education and academic results. Indifferent, on the other hand:124
  • Substance abuse
  • Crime

2.1. Reduced premature mortality, fewer suicides

MPH reduced the overall mortality rate in children with ADHD by 20%. Delayed use of MPH correlated with a 5% increase in mortality. Long-term use reduced the overall mortality rate by 16%.125
No increased mortality was found when taking ADHD medication (stimulants or atomoxetine).126

Stimulants reduced the risk of suicide attempts in ADHD in several large studies:127

  • 11.6 % (in all age groups)128
  • 19 %129
  • 42 %130
  • 59 % if taken for 3 months and half a year131
  • 72 % if taken for more than half a year131
  • Methylphenidate for ADHD was associated with a reduction in the previously significantly increased risk of suicide after 90 days.132
  • Other ADHD medications (non-stimulants) showed no or very little reduction in suicidality, e.g. 4%129

2.2. Fewer accidents and injuries

2.2.1. Fewer accidents

ADHD medication reduces the frequency of accidents in affected boys and girls, as children and adolescents.133134 by 43%135 and traumatic brain injuries were reduced by 49%136 to 66%.137

2.2.2. Fewer traffic accidents

  • 38 % to 40 % for men138139
  • 42 % for women139
  • serious traffic accidents (for men) by 50138
  • of sexually transmitted diseases
  • by 30 to 40 % for men only140
  • of teenage pregnancies105

2.2.3. Fewer fractures (breaks)

Each drug treatment for ADHD reduced the risk of

  • of fractures in total141
    • by 39% to 74% according to 6 cohort studies, by both stimulants and non-stimulants142
    • by 32 to 41 according to the self-reporting study142

Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate reduced the risk of

  • of stress fractures (fatigue fractures)
    • by 22.4%, although this figure was even lower than for those not affected143
    • to 16 % less than those not affected31
  • of trauma fractures (accidental fractures)
    • by 23 % when taking MPH for at least 180 days144
    • to the same value as for non-affected persons31
    • In ADHD sufferers treated with non-stimulants, the risk increase for bone fractures doubled to 37% compared to the risk increase of non-affected persons, which was 17% higher than in non-affected persons31
  • Of unintentional injuries by 15 %145 or with an effect size of 0.88146
  • Of brain trauma by 73 %145
  • From poisoning147
  • Of injury-related emergency admissions by 9 %148
  • of burns in adolescents with ADHD149
    • by 57 % when taking MPH for 90 days or longer
    • by 30 % if MPH has been taken for less than 90 days

2.2.4. Normalized healing time for concussion

The increased recovery time of ADHD sufferers for concussions was normalized by stimulants33

2.4. Fewer comorbidities

ADHD medication reduces the frequency and severity of the following comorbidities.150

2.4.1. Less depression

ADHD medication reduces the risk of depression:151

  • by 40 % 3 years after ingestion
  • by 20 % during ingestion
  • MPH by around 30 % with long-term use in children and adolescents with ADHD152
  • Stimulants by over 60 % in the course of 10 years153

2.4.2. Fewer anxiety disorders

ADHD stimulants over 10 years reduced the risk of anxiety disorders by over 85%153

2.4.3. Fewer behavioral disorders and ODD

ADHD stimulants over 10 years reduced the risk of153

  • Behavioral disorder (conduct disorder) by almost 70 %
  • ODD (Oppositional Deficit Disorder) by around 55 %

Long-term use of MPH reduced the risk of CD and ODD in children and adolescents with ADHD by around 50%152 Short-term use reduced the risk less significantly.

2.4.4. Fewer bipolar disorders

ADHD stimulants reduced the risk of bipolar disorder by over 50% over 10 years.153

2.4.5. Fewer psychoses

Long-term use of MPH reduced the risk of psychotic disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD by around 17%.152 Short-term use reduced the risk less significantly.

2.5. Reduced consumption of addictive substances

Reduce ADHD medication:

  • Tobacco consumption154
    • the number of smokers by 50155
    • the number of people who start smoking95
  • Substance abuse
    • by 31 %156
    • to the level of non-affected persons157
  • Alcohol consumption154
  • Cannabis use154
  • Use of illegal drugs154

ADHD medication does not increase the risk for those affected:158

  • for alcohol abuse or dependence (11 studies, over 1300 participants)
  • for nicotine abuse or dependence (6 studies, 884 participants)
  • for cocaine abuse or dependence (7 studies, 950 participants)
  • for cannabis abuse or dependence (9 studies, over 1100 participants) (Humphreys et al., 2013).

A meta-analysis of 6 studies with n = 1,014 subjects showed a significantly reduced risk of later addiction for participants medicated with stimulants (here: MPH).159 The risk of later addiction, whether to alcohol or other substances, was found to be 1.9 times lower (i.e. almost halved).160
Another meta-analysis found a reduction in craving and an increase in abstinence with ADHD medication (stimulants as well as atomoxetine) in addicts with ADHD.161

2.6. Less obesity

Patients on stimulant medication were 26% less likely to be obese (BMI over 30) than unmedicated patients (30.5% to 41.2%).114
Patients on stimulant medication were 42% more likely to be of normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 25) than unmedicated patients (38.7% to 27.2%).114

2.7. Fewer victims of violence, bullying and abuse

ADHD sufferers treated with MPH were less likely to be victims of bullying/cyberbullying (physical victimization, isolation, destruction of property by others, and sexual victimization), more likely to destroy other people’s property, and more likely to exhibit bullying behavior (perpetrator side).162

Children with ADHD who were treated with MPH or ATX were significantly less likely to suffer abuse than untreated sufferers.163

ADHD treatment reduced violence in the relationship.164

2.8. Lower crime rate

ADHD medication reduces the risk for sufferers

  • the crime rate69165
    • For men by 31 %
    • By 41 % for women
  • In particular for offenses committed on impulse166

2.9. Improved school performance and educational qualifications

ADHD medication improves academic performance:

  • Three months of treatment with ADHD medication resulted in167
    • a grade improvement of more than nine points (scale: 0 to 320)
    • a 20% reduction in the risk of not receiving a recommendation for upper secondary school
  • The test results of ADHD sufferers during the period in which they took medication were 4.8 points (scale: 1 to 200) higher than during the period in which they did not take medication.168
  • Discontinuation of ADHD medication correlated with a small significant decrease in grade point average169

Those affected who were treated with stimulants were almost one and a half times more likely to graduate from high school (around 58%) than those who were not treated with medication (41.3%)114

ADHD stimulants reduced the risk of remaining sedentary by almost 60% in the USA153

ADHD sufferers have a reduced motivation to exert themselves cognitively or physically. Amphetamine medication increased motivation evenly in both areas to close to the level of healthy control subjects170

2.10. Improved employability and income

Patients with a combination of sustained-release and non-retained medication were more than one and a half times as likely to be in full-time employment (52.9%) than those without medication (33.3%).114
People on stimulant medication were 30 % less likely to be unemployed than those not on medication (37.6 % to 53.5 %).114

People affected by stimulant medication earned114

  • 25% more often between 25,000 and 150,000 USD / year than unmedicated patients (63.7% to 50.9%)
  • almost 30 % less likely to receive less than USD 25,000 per year than unmedicated patients (24.5 % to 34.2 %)

2.11. More frequent regular health insurance

Commercial health insurance as opposed to state health insurance114

  • 44.7 % of unmedicated patients
  • 56.4 % of patients treated with untreated stimulants
  • 65.2 % of patients treated with slow-release stimulants
  • 79.4 % of patients treated with a combination of sustained-release and non-released stimulants

2.12. Less need for treatment, lower healthcare costs

The number of inpatient treatments is reduced by up to 82% with combined stimulant treatment114

  • Unmedicated ADHD sufferers: 0.629 / year
  • Treated with a combination of retarded and unretarded stimulants: 0.111 / year
  • Treated with delayed or unretarded stimulants: 0.27 / year

The number of outpatient treatments is reduced by up to half with combined stimulant treatment114

  • Unmedicated ADHD sufferers: 4.59 / year
  • Treated with a combination of retarded and unretarded stimulants: 2.3 / year
  • Treated with retarded or unretarded stimulants: 3.5 / year

The number of emergency room visits is reduced by up to 63% with combined stimulant treatment114

  • Unmedicated ADHD sufferers: 0.862 / year
  • Treated with a combination of retarded and unretarded stimulants: 0.380 / year

Annual healthcare costs are reduced by up to 70% ($12,740/year) with combined stimulant treatment114

  • Unmedicated ADHD sufferers: 18,200 USD / year
  • Treated with a combination of retarded and unretarded stimulants: USD 5,460 / year
  • Treated with slow-release stimulants: USD 8,970 / year
  • Treated with untreated stimulants: USD 9,190 / year

We interpret the difference in the combination of unretarded and retarded stimulants compared to taking retarded or unretarded stimulants alone as a sign of prolonged daily coverage and finer / more detailed drug adjustment,

2.13. Improved quality of life

Medication significantly mitigates the deterioration in health-related quality of life caused by ADHD.116

A meta-analysis found a deterioration in quality of life when discontinuing medication in children and adolescents, but not in adults.171

2.14. No lasting protective effect of treatment carried out a long time ago

Adults who received individualized ADHD therapy between the ages of 6 and 10 were found to have very mixed results 18 years later172

  • An improvement in ADHD symptoms that corresponded to the follow-up after 8 years
    • 18% no longer had an ADHD diagnosis
    • 55 % had a partial remission; of these:
      • ADHD-I 33 %
      • ADHD-HI 13 %
      • ADHD-C 54 %
    • 27% still had an ADHD diagnosis; of these:
      • ADHD-I 67 %
      • ADHD-HI 17 %
      • ADHD-C 17 %
    • Functional impairment with regard to
      • Finances 28 %
      • Daily responsibilities 28 %
      • Community activities 23 %
      • Learning/acquiring new learning content 21 %
  • Poorer educational / professional results than expected
    • School and professional qualifications
      • As often as in the total population
      • Significantly lower grades
      • Much less likely to have Abitur / Fachhochschulreife than the overall population
    • Increased unemployment
      • Currently unemployed: 17 %
        • Approx. 30 % more frequent than the overall population (study compares with 2011, when unemployment was 30 % higher than in 2019)
      • 25 % were unemployed for over a year
      • 52 % have been unemployed at some point in the past few years
  • More frequent contact with the justice system than expected
    • Criminal convictions 33 %
  • Health impairments, comorbidities
    • Triple rate of externalizing or internalizing disorders
      • Three and a half times the rate of medication for mental health problems
    • 27% had a personality disorder according to DSM-IV
      • Antisocial personality disorder 12 %, RR 6.8 (approx. 6 times as frequent; total population: 2 %)
      • Avoidant personality disorder RR 2.0 (twice as often)
      • Schizoid personality disorder RR 2.0 (twice as frequent)
      • Paranoid personality disorder RR 1.3 (30 % more frequent)
    • Addiction problems
      • Drug use: 15 %; much more frequent
      • Smoking slightly more often
      • Alcohol slightly more often
    • Weight problems
      • Overweight one and a half times as common as in the general population
      • Obesity 30% more common than in the general population
    • Chronic pain
      • Children with ADHD showed a prevalence of chronic pain of up to 66% (at least weekly pain for more than 3 months). Stimulant treatment reduced the rate of chronic pain. Another study found a reduced perception of pain in adolescents with ADHD, which disappeared with stimulant treatment.173
  • Several social outcomes were favorable
    • Long-term relationship/marriage: 63 %
  • Low life satisfaction, especially in the areas of
    • Health
    • Profession/Career
    • Leisure/recreational activities
    • Own children
    • Own person
    • Sexuality
    • Relationships with others
    • Overall life satisfaction

2.15. Numbers needed to treat

How many patients need to be treated with MPH in the long term to avoid one of the following long-term consequences of untreated ADHD?174 The results were independent of gender:

  • 3 patients treated = 1 class repetition avoided
  • 3 treated patients = 1 avoided oppositional defiant behavior
  • 3 treated patients = 1 avoided behavioral disorder (conduct disorder)
  • 3 treated patients = 1 avoided anxiety disorder (with 2 types of effects)
  • 4 patients treated = 1 major depression avoided
  • 4 victims treated = 1 serious car accident avoided (in simulation)
  • 5 patients treated = 1 bipolar disorder avoided
  • 6 smokers treated = 1 smoker avoided
  • 10 patients treated = 1 addiction avoided

3. Financial consequences of ADHD

3.1. Treatment costs for ADHD

Treatment costs are the pure costs of therapy, medication and visits to the doctor for the purpose of ADHD diagnosis and ADHD treatment.

The annual cost of drug treatment, including the cost of visits to the doctor and laboratory tests, was estimated at between USD 1,710 and USD 2,567 for 2004.175

3.2. Healthcare costs for ADHD

In addition to the direct treatment costs of ADHD itself, healthcare costs also include the additional medical costs for comorbidities resulting from ADHD (e.g. addiction problems) and the increased risk of accidents.

A Danish cohort study from 2016 calculated EUR 2,636 higher annual healthcare costs for ADHD sufferers (EUR 4,868 instead of EUR 1,912 = 2.55 times higher).176
In addition, there were a further EUR 477 higher annual healthcare costs for partners of ADHD sufferers.

ADHD more than doubles healthcare costs.177

A meta-study for Europe between 1990 and 2013 calculated annual healthcare costs for ADHD of EUR 2,022 to EUR 2,390 per affected child/adolescent with ADHD.178 In addition, healthcare costs for family members due to the care of an ADHD child/adolescent ranged from EUR 1339 to EUR 1826 per affected person.

For 1999 to 2001, higher annual health care costs were found for ADHD sufferers in the USA:179

  • total medical costs doubled (USD 5,651 vs. USD 2,771), including
    • outpatient costs (USD 3,009 vs. USD 1,492)
    • inpatient costs (USD 1,259 vs. USD 514)
    • Cost of prescription drugs (USD 1,673 vs. USD 1,008)

Healthcare spending in the US due to ADHD amounts to 20.6 billion USD annually180
Children with ADHD represent 5.4% of New York State’s Medicaid population, but account for more than 18% of total costs, a 3.2-fold increase.181
The higher costs result from behavioral health services and medication.182

Annual additional costs to society of USD 1,635 per adult with ADHD were cited for 2018.183

Children with ADHD in Flanders (Belgium) required more intensive healthcare in 2002 than their unaffected siblings. The utilization of medical services was:184

  • General practitioner (60.3 % compared to 37.4 %)
  • Specialist doctor (50.9 % compared to 12.9 %)
  • Emergency room (26 % compared to 12.1 %)
  • Hospital admissions (14 % compared to 8.4 %)
    The annual healthcare costs for a child with ADHD were 6 times higher than for an unaffected sibling (EUR 588 compared to EUR 92). The public costs were more than double (EUR 779 compared to EUR 371).

Primary school children with hyperactivity incurred 17.6 times higher average annual costs (£562 instead of £30) in all domains (except non-mental health costs). Costs were consistently explained by male gender and, for some cost codes, by conduct disorder.185 It is likely that externalizing disorders such as ODD and CD made their own contribution.

The annual healthcare costs of ADHD sufferers were reduced by up to 70% ($12,740/year) with combined stimulant treatment:114
unmedicated ADHD sufferers: 18,200 USD / year
treated with a combination of retarded and unretarded stimulants: USD 5,460 / year
treated with slow-release stimulants: USD 8,970 / year
treated with untreated stimulants: USD 9,190 / year

3.3. Costs for relatives with ADHD

Relatives’ costs are the costs incurred by parents or legal guardians for the additional expenses arising from the ADHD of the affected person.

A Danish cohort study from 2016 calculated EUR 7,997 in additional annual direct and indirect costs per partner of an ADHD sufferer.176

One study calculated 5 times the direct annual family costs (“related to caregiver burden”), excluding treatment costs and indirect costs, for ADHD sufferers aged 14 to 17.186

A meta-study for Europe between 1990 and 2013 calculated the total annual costs of ADHD to be €9,860 per child and €14,483 per adolescent with ADHD.178 Of this, 22% to 14% was due to loss of productivity among family members.

For adults with ADHD, the annual additional costs to society as a whole amounted to USD 14,092 per adult in 2018.183
Caregivers of adults with ADHD spend an additional 0.8 hours per week on ADHD-related care compared to adults in the US population as a whole.187188 This results in additional annual costs of $6.6 billion.

A meta-study of 19 studies found the total annual cost of ADHD in the US (in 2010 dollars) to be between $176 billion and $309 billion (1.17% to 2.05% of US GDP).189 Of this, spillover costs borne by family members of individuals with ADHD accounted for USD 33 billion to USD 43 billion (0.22% to 0.29% of US GDP).

3.4. Education costs for ADHD

A meta-study for Europe between 1990 and 2013 calculated total annual costs for ADHD of EUR 9,860 per child and EUR 14,483 per adolescent with ADHD.178 Education costs accounted for 62% and 42% respectively.

A meta-study of 19 studies found the total annual cost of ADHD in the US (in 2010 dollars) to be between $176 billion and $309 billion (1.17% to 2.05% of US GDP):189

  • for adults: USD 105 to 194 billion (0.7 % to 1.29 % of US GDP)
    • in particular productivity and income losses (USD 87 billion to USD 138 billion) (0.58% to 0.92% of US GDP)
  • for children/adolescents: USD 38 to 72 billion (0.25 % 0.48 % of US GDP)
    • healthcare in particular: USD 21 billion - USD 44 billion (0.14 % 0.29 % of US GDP)
    • of which education accounted for: USD 15 billion - USD 25 billion (0.1% to 0.17% of US GDP)
  • Spillover costs borne by family members of individuals with ADHD: $33 billion to $43 billion (0.22% to 0.29% of U.S. GDP)

3.5. Increased social benefits

A Danish cohort study from 2016 found that ADHD sufferers and their partners were more likely to receive social benefits (sickness benefit or disability pension).176

3.6. Indirect damage caused by ADHD

3.6.1. Increased absenteeism, unemployment, incapacity to work

For adults with ADHD, the annual additional costs to society as a whole for 2018 amounted to USD 14,092 per affected adult.183
Of which

  • Additional unemployment costs: 54.4 % (USD 7,666 / person affected)
    • Adult men with ADHD are 2.1 times more likely to be unemployed than non-affected people. Their unemployment rate is therefore 22.1 percentage points higher.
    • Adult women with ADHD are 1.3 times more likely to be unemployed than those without the condition. Their unemployment rate is therefore 9.7 percentage points higher.
    • The annual additional costs in the USA amount to USD 66.8 billion (USD 55.8 billion for men and USD 11 billion for women with ADHD). This corresponds to 0.325% of GDP.
  • Productivity losses: 23.4 % (USD 3,298 / person affected)190
    • 13.6 working days of absence due to ADHD
    • 21.6 working days of ADHS lost during attendance
    • The 35-day average of lost productivity was distributed across
      • Laborers: 55.8 days
      • Service workers: 32.6 days
      • Technician: 19.8 days
      • Skilled workers: 12.2 days
    • Lost productivity costs due to ADHD of USD 28.8 billion (USD 19.9 billion for men and USD 8.9 billion for women with ADHD). This corresponds to 0.14% of GDP.
    • Employees with ADHD were absent 3.5 times as often due to “unofficial” absences (4.33 vs. 1.13 days)179

A Swedish register study conducted between 1998 and 2008 found that ADHD sufferers:191

  • 12.19 days more unemployment (252 working days would be 4.84 %)
  • 19 times the probability of a disability pension
    • Incapacity to work was largely explained by comorbid mental disability and developmental disorder, meaning that improvement through more consistent treatment is only possible to a limited extent.

A relatively small German study found that unemployment was 24.8% higher.192

3.6.2. Premature mortality

For adults with ADHD, the annual additional costs to society as a whole amounted to USD 14,092 per adult in 2018.183
Adults with ADHD have a doubled annual mortality rate (primarily due to increased rates of traffic and other accidents.193
In 2018, this resulted in a total social productivity loss of around USD 3.2 billion (0.016% of GDP in 2018).

People with ADHD are 1.7 times more likely to have at least one accident:194

  • Children (28% compared to 18%)
  • Young people (32 % compared to 23 %)
  • Adults (38 % compared to 18 %)
    The follow-up costs for ADHD sufferers were only higher for adults (USD 483 compared to USD 146 = 3.3 times).

Some studies only look at the costs to the healthcare system and are therefore not suitable for adequately describing the economic impact of ADHD.

  • There are no current figures for Germany. Older studies, which are of historical value at best, put the healthcare costs for ADHD in Germany in 2002 at EUR 142,000,000 (EUR 630 per patient, i.e. for 225,000 people affected. In view of the actual number of cases, the costs are considerably higher.)195 and in 2003 to a total of EUR 230,000,000.196 These figures only include treatment costs
  • One study found a total economic burden of $47.55 million for 69,353 diagnosed ADHD sufferers in Korea in 2012, equivalent to $684 per sufferer and 0.004% of Korea’s GDP (gross domestic product) in 2012.197

3.6.3. Income deficits with ADHD Reduced income

A long-term study of 604 test subjects over 20 years showed that ADHD sufferers have a lower net income and greater financial dependence on their parents at the age of 30 than those who are not affected. This also applies if the DSM criteria are no longer met. This deficit persists throughout life and leads to a 1.27 million dollar lower expected lifetime income for men and up to 75 % lower net assets at retirement than for non-affected persons.198 In addition, adults with ADHD who were not diagnosed and treated in childhood have significantly lower incomes than their unaffected twins and incur EUR 20,000 higher costs per person per year199

A Swedish register study from 1998 to 2008 found that ADHD sufferers had a 17% lower annual income.191

Americans with ADHD achieved fewer academic milestones beyond high school in 2003. Those with ADHD were 42.3% less likely to have a full-time job (34%) than those without ADHD (59%). Except for 18- to 24-year-olds, average household income was significantly reduced, regardless of academic achievement or personal characteristics. The national labor productivity loss associated with ADHD was estimated at $67 billion to $116 billion (0.58% to 1.01% of US GDP), assuming a prevalence of 2.3%.200
The income with ADHD in 2003 was:

  • Men: USD 45,645 compared to USD 54,399 (16.1 % less)
  • Women: USD 37,607 compared to USD 49,738 (24.4 % less)

At the current prevalence of 5% for adults, this figure is likely to be more than double. The consumer price index in the USA rose by 40% between 2003 and 2020. Assuming income and GDP had risen at the same rate, this would result in USD 183 to 322 billion (0.87 % to 1.54 % of GDP) in 2020.

A Danish cohort study from 2016 found lower earned income among ADHD sufferers in the five years prior to initial diagnosis.176

ADHD-affected adults, if undiagnosed and untreated in childhood, earned significantly less income than their unaffected twins and paid less tax199 Tax and social security contributions resulting from reduced income

So far, we only know of one study that calculated the tax and social security contributions lost in Germany as a result.
The German net tax and social security revenue of a non-affected person born in 2010 was found to be EUR 80,000 higher than that of a non-treated ADHD sufferer. ADHD interventions that improved educational attainment led to fiscal benefits through higher lifetime tax revenues.
For every euro spent on a new ADHS intervention, EUR 1.39 in discounted net tax revenues and EUR 3.02 in discounted gross tax revenues were calculated201
Converted to the untreated adults in Germany and to 2020 values, we have calculated annual losses in net tax and social security revenue of EUR 5.916 billion. This corresponds to 1.63% of the federal budget.
Not included are savings from

  • reduced crime
    • eUR 111 million saved annually in prison costs
    • eUR 500 million less damage caused by crime each year
  • reduced premature mortality: EUR 580 million per year
  • Relatives’ costs: EUR 2 billion per year
  • Productivity losses in the workplace: EUR 11 billion per year

3.7. Total economic costs

One study cites USD 182,000 (as of 2015) higher costs from medical care, education and the consequences of crime per ADHD case persisting into adulthood in the USA.202
An Australian study identifies total social and economic costs of ADHD of between USD 8.40 and 17.44 billion at a cost per person affected of USD 15,664 per year (2018/2019).203 Of the total costs

  • Productivity costs 81 %
  • Deadweight losses 11 %
  • Costs for the healthcare system 4 %
    The loss of well-being was considerable and was estimated at USD 5.31 billion.

A Danish cohort study from 2016 calculated EUR 22,721 in additional annual direct and indirect costs per ADHD sufferer (as of 2016).176
Adult ADHD sufferers accounted for EUR 23,072 per year.

Another Danish study on same-sex twins showed for adults with ADHD if they were not diagnosed and treated in childhood204

  • higher total annual costs of EUR 20,134 than for his siblings (as of 2010)
  • a significantly lower disposable income
  • lower taxes paid
  • higher receipt of state benefits
  • higher costs for health and social care
  • higher crime rate

Two American studies put the annual additional costs of ADHD to society as a whole at USD 6,799 per child (USD 19.4 billion) and USD 8,349 per adolescent (USD 13.8 billion) (as at 2017/2018).205 The costs were divided between

  • Education costs (59.9% for children, 48.8% for young people)
  • direct healthcare costs (25.9% for children, 29.0% for adolescents)
  • Childcare costs (14.1% for children, 11.5% for young people).

One study calculated USD 14,576 per ADHD sufferer (as of 2005) with an estimated range between USD 12,005 and USD 17,458.206

  1. Steinhausen, Sobanski in Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (2010): Handbuch AD(H)S, Kohlhammer, Seite 158 ff und 165 ff mit etlichen Nachweisen

  2. Leffa, Torres, Rohde (2018): A Review on the Role of Inflammation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2018;25(5-6):328-333. doi: 10.1159/000489635. mit etlichen Nachweisen

  3. Barkley (2019): ADHS wirkt sich auch auf die Lebenserwartung aus. Gastbeitrag. Ärzteblatt Rheinland-Pfalz 11/2019

  4. Vilar-Ribó L, Cabana-Domínguez J, Martorell L, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Sanchez-Roige S, Palmer AA, Vilella E, Ribasés M, Muntané G, Soler Artigas M (2023): Shared genetic architecture between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and lifespan. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2023 Mar 11. doi: 10.1038/s41386-023-01555-x. PMID: 36906694.

  5. Dalsgaard, Østergaard, Leckman, Mortensen, Pedersen (2015): Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study, The Lancet, Volume 385, Issue 9983, 2015, Pages 2190-2196, ISSN 0140-6736, n = 1,92 Millionen

  6. Sun, Kuja-Halkola; Faraone, D’Onofrio, Dalsgaard, Chang, Larsson (2019): Association of Psychiatric Comorbidity With the Risk of Premature Death Among Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1944, n = 2675615

  7. Shem-Tov, Chodick, Weitzman, Koren (2019): The Association Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Injuries, and Methylphenidate. Glob Pediatr Health. 2019 May 5;6:2333794X19845920. doi: 10.1177/2333794X19845920

  8. DiScala, Lescohier, Barthel, Li (1998): Injuries to Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics, December 1998, VOLUME 102 / ISSUE 6

  9. Grigorian, Nahmias, Dolich, Barrios, Schubl, Sheehan, Lekawa (2019): Increased risk of head injury in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2019 Jul 21. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12246.

  10. Romo, Sweerts, Ordonneau, Blot, Gicquel (2019): Road accidents in young adults with ADHD: Which factors can explain the occurrence of injuries in drivers with ADHD and how to prevent it? Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2019 Jul 16:1-6. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2019.1640697.

  11. Kittel-Schneider, Wolff, Queiser, Wessendorf, Meier, Verdenhalven, Brunkhorst-Kanaan, Grimm, McNeill, Grabow, Reimertz, Nau, Klos, Reif (2019): Prevalence of ADHD in Accident Victims: Results of the PRADA Study. J Clin Med. 2019 Oct 8;8(10). pii: E1643. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101643.

  12. Curry, Yerys, Metzger, Carey, Power (2019): Traffic Crashes, Violations, and Suspensions Among Young Drivers With ADHD. Pediatrics. 2019 Jun;143(6). pii: e20182305. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2305.

  13. Raman, Engelhard, Kollins (2019): Driving the Point Home: Novel Approaches to Mitigate Crash Risk for Patients With ADHD. Pediatrics. 2019 May 20. pii: e20190820. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0820.

  14. Catalá-López, Hutton, Page, Driver, Ridao, Alonso-Arroyo, Valencia, Macías Saint-Gerons, Tabarés-Seisdedos (2021): Mortality in Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2022 Feb 14:e216401. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6401. PMID: 35157020. METASTUDIE

  15. Barkley, Dawson (2022): Higher Risk of Mortality for Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Demands a Public Health Prevention Strategy. JAMA Pediatr. 2022 Feb 14:e216398. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6398. PMID: 35157011.

  16. Roy, Garner, Epstein, Hoza, Nichols, Molina, Swanson, Arnold, Hechtman (2019): Effects of Childhood and Adult Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes: Results From the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 22. pii: S0890-8567(19)31458-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.08.007.

  17. Yeh, Westphal, Hu, Peterson, Williams, Prabhakar, Frank, Autio, Elsiss, Simon, Beck, Lynch, Rossom, Lu, Owen-Smith, Waitzfelder, Ahmedani (2019): Diagnosed Mental Health Conditions and Risk of Suicide Mortality. Psychiatr Serv. 2019 Sep 1;70(9):750-757. doi: 10.1176/

  18. Fitzgerald, Dalsgaard, Nordentoft, Erlangsen (2019): Suicidal behaviour among persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 7:1-6. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2019.128. n = 2,9 Millionen

  19. Häge (2018): Psychostimulanzien und medikamentöse Behandlung der ADHS; Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie; Potsdam, den 13.09.2018

  20. Friend (2019): Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2019 Dec 16. pii: edpract-2019-318308. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318308.

  21. Gomes, Soares, Kieling, Rohde, Gonçalves (2019): Mental disorders and suicide risk in emerging adulthood: the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort. Rev Saude Publica. 2019 Oct 21;53:96. doi: 10.11606/s1518-8787.20190530012356. eCollection 2019. n = 3.781

  22. James, Lai, Dahl (2004): Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide: a review of possible associations. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004 Dec;110(6):408-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00384.x. PMID: 15521824. REVIEW

  23. Jaisoorya, Desai, Nair, Rani, Menon, Thennarasu (2019): Association of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms with Academic and Psychopathological Outcomes in Indian College Students: a Retrospective Survey. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2019 Dec;29(124):124-128. doi: 10.12809/eaap1771. n = 5.145

  24. Bjork, Shull, Perrin, Shura (2022): Suicidal ideation and clinician-rated suicide risk in veterans referred for ADHD evaluation at a VA Medical Center. Psychol Serv. 2022 Apr 14. doi: 10.1037/ser0000659. PMID: 35420862.

  25. Chen, Chan, Wu, Lee, Lu, Liang, Dewey, Stewart, Lee (2019): Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mortality Risk in Taiwan. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Aug 2;2(8):e198714. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8714.

  26. Libutzki B, Neukirch B, Kittel-Schneider S, Reif A, Hartman CA (2022): Risk of accidents and unintentional injuries in men and women with ADHD across the adult lifespan. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2022 Dec 4. doi: 10.1111/acps.13524. PMID: 36464800.

  27. Gallagher L, Breslin G, Leavey G, Curran E, Rosato M (2023): Determinants of unintentional injuries in preschool age children in high-income countries: A systematic review. Child Care Health Dev. 2023 Aug 9. doi: 10.1111/cch.13161. PMID: 37555597. REVIEW

  28. Jernbro, Bonander, Beckman (2019): The association between disability and unintentional injuries among adolescents in a general education setting: Evidence from a Swedish population-based school survey. Disabil Health J. 2019 Sep 12:100841. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.100841.

  29. Jin, Chwo, Chen, Huang, Huang, Chung, Sun, Lin, Chien, Wu (2022): Relationship between Injuries and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Study with Long-Term Follow-Up in Taiwan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Mar 29;19(7):4058. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19074058. PMID: 35409742; PMCID: PMC8998513. n = 9.010

  30. Guo NW, Lin CL, Lin CW, Huang MT, Chang WL, Lu TH, Lin CJ (2016): Fracture risk and correlating factors of a pediatric population with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide matched study. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016 Jul;25(4):369-74. doi: 10.1097/BPB.0000000000000243. PMID: 26523534. n = 7.200

  31. Zhang, Shen, Yan (2021): ADHD, stimulant medication use, and the risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Osteoporos. 2021 Jun 2;16(1):81. doi: 10.1007/s11657-021-00960-3. PMID: 34076749. REVIEW

  32. Iverson, Kelshaw, Cook, Caswell (2020): Middle School Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Have a Greater Concussion History. Clin J Sport Med. 2020 Feb 6:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000773. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000773. PMID: 32032165. n = 1.037

  33. Coffman CA, Gunn BS, Pasquina PF, McCrea MA, McAllister TW, Broglio SP, Moore RD, Pontifex MB (2023): Concussion Risk and Recovery in Athletes With Psychostimulant-Treated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings From the NCAA-DOD CARE Consortium. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2023 Dec 7;45(6):337-346. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2023-0038. PMID: 38061352.

  34. Pakyurek, Badawy, Ugalde, Ishimine, Chaudhari, McCarten-Gibbs, Nobari, Kuppermann, Holmes (2022): Does attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder increase the risk of minor blunt head trauma in children? J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2022 Aug 13. doi: 10.1111/jcap.12390. PMID: 35962779. n = 3.700

  35. Beyoglu, Erdur (2022): Evaluation of the Relationship Between Head Trauma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary School Children Admitted to the Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2022 Sep 30. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002854. PMID: 36173338.

  36. Kafali, Biler, Palamar, Ozbaran (2020): Ocular injuries, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and maternal anxiety/depression levels: Is there a link? Chin J Traumatol. 2020 Apr;23(2):71-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2019.11.008. PMID: 32201230; PMCID: PMC7156958. n = 79

  37. Chou IC, Lin CC, Sung FC, Kao CH. (2014): Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder increases the risk of deliberate self-poisoning: A population-based cohort. Eur Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;29(8):523-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.05.006. PMID: 25172157. n = 3.685

  38. Tabibi Z, Schwebel DC, Juzdani MH (2023): How does attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affect children’s road-crossing? A case-control study. Traffic Inj Prev. 2023 Mar 3:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2023.2181664. PMID: 36867075.

  39. Barkley RA (2002): Major life activity and health outcomes associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63 Suppl 12:10-5. PMID: 12562056.

  40. Vaa T (2014): ADHD and relative risk of accidents in road traffic: a meta-analysis. Accid Anal Prev. 2014 Jan;62:415-25. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.10.003. PMID: 24238842. METASTUDIE

  41. Skyving, Forsman, Dukic Willstrand, Laflamme, Möller (2021): Medical impairment and road traffic crashes among older drivers in Sweden – A national, population-based, case-control study. Accid Anal Prev. 2021 Oct 23;163:106434. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106434. PMID: 34700248.)

  42. McManus B, Kana R, Rajpari I, Holm HB, Stavrinos D (2024): Risky driving behavior among individuals with Autism, ADHD, and typically developing persons. Accid Anal Prev. 2023 Dec 13;195:107367. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2023.107367. PMID: 38096625.

  43. Nissim M, Shfir O, Ratzon NZ (2023): Simulator Driving Abilities, Executive Functions, and Adaptive Behavior Among Adolescents With Complex Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Atten Disord. 2023 Dec 12:10870547231214975. doi: 10.1177/10870547231214975. PMID: 38084062.

  44. Arrondo G, Osorio A, Magallón S, Lopez-Del Burgo C, Cortese S (2023): Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a risk factor for being involved in intimate partner violence and sexual violence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2023 Jul 24:1-10. doi: 10.1017/S0033291723001976. PMID: 37485948.

  45. Yu, Nevado-Holgado, Molero, D’Onofrio, Larsson, Howard, Fazel (2019): Mental disorders and intimate partner violence perpetrated by men towards women: A Swedish population-based longitudinal study. PLoS Med. 2019 Dec 17;16(12):e1002995. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002995. eCollection 2019 Dec.

  46. Elklit A, Murphy S, Skovgaard C, Lausten M (2023): Sexual Violence against Children with Disabilities: A Danish National Birth Cohort Prospective Study. Scand J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Psychol. 2023 Dec 16;11(1):143-149. doi: 10.2478/sjcapp-2023-0015. PMID: 38107837; PMCID: PMC10724881. n = 570.351

  47. Bali P, Sonuga-Barke E, Mohr-Jensen C, Demontis D, Minnis H. Is there evidence of a causal link between childhood maltreatment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies using the Bradford-Hill criteria. JCPP Adv. 2023 May 27;3(4):e12169. doi: 10.1002/jcv2.12169. PMID: 38054051; PMCID: PMC10694545. METASTUDY

  48. Voltas N, Morales-Hidalgo P, Hernández-Martínez C, Canals-Sans J (2023) Self-Perceived Bullying Victimization in Pre-Adolescent Schoolchildren With ADHD. Psicothema. 2023 Nov;35(4):351-363. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2022.360. PMID: 37882420.

  49. Anns F, D’Souza S, MacCormick C, Mirfin-Veitch B, Clasby B, Hughes N, Forster W, Tuisaula E, Bowden N (2023): Risk of Criminal Justice System Interactions in Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings From a National Birth Cohort. J Atten Disord. 2023 May 30:10870547231177469. doi: 10.1177/10870547231177469. PMID: 37254493.

  50. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Konig PH, Giampino TL (1989): Hyperactive boys almost grown up. IV. Criminality and its relationship to psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989 Dec;46(12):1073-9. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810120015004. PMID: 2589922.

  51. Biederman, Faraone, Spencer, Mick, Monuteaux, Aleardi (2006): Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;67(4):524-40.

  52. Rösler, zitiert von Dlubis-Mertens (2004): ADHS bei Erwachsenen: Riskantes Leben. PP 3, Ausgabe Februar 2004, Seite 76

  53. Ginsberg, Hirvikoski, Lindefors (2010): Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 10 Art. Nr. 112, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 232, neben dort weiter genannten Studien

  54. Rösler, Retz, Retz-Junginger, Hengesch, Schneider, Supprian, Schwitzgebel, Pinhard, Dovi-Akue, Wender, Thome (2004): Prevalence of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in young male prison inmates. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 254, 365 – 371, n = 183

  55. Philipsen, Heßlinger, Tebartz van Elst: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung im Erwachsenenalter – Diagnostik, Ätiologie und Therapie (ÜBERSICHTSARBEIT), Deutsches Ärzteblatt, Jg. 105, Heft 17, 25. April 2008, Seite 311 – 317, 313 , Seite 313

  56. Beaudry, Yu, Långström, Fazel (2020): Mental Disorders Among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities: An Updated Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 5:S0890-8567(20)30061-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2020.01.015. PMID: 32035113.

  57. Gosden et al. 2003; n = 100, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  58. Favarino 1988, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  59. Eyestone und Howell 1994, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  60. Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  61. Blocher und Rösler 2002, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  62. Curran und Fitzgerald 1999, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009, n = 55, Durchschnittsalter 26,2 J.

  63. Kuzmickaitė, Leskauskas, Gylytė (2019): ADHD-Related Mental Health Issues of Young Adult Male Prisoners in Pravieniškės Correction House-Open Colony (Lithuania). Am J Mens Health. 2019 Jul-Aug;13(4):1557988319870974. doi: 10.1177/1557988319870974.

  64. Asherson, Johansson, Holland, Fahy, Forester, Howitt, Lawrie, Strang, Young, Landau, Thomson (2019): Randomised controlled trial of the short-term effects of OROS-methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms and behavioural outcomes in young male prisoners with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (CIAO-II). Trials. 2019 Dec 2;20(1):663. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3705-9.

  65. Satterfield JH, Schell A (1997): A prospective study of hyperactive boys with conduct problems and normal boys: adolescent and adult criminality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;36(12):1726-35. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199712000-00021. PMID: 9401334.

  66. Rasmussen, Gillberg (2000): Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;39(11):1424-31., n = 55 vs. 46; Durchschnittsalter 22 J

  67. Rösler, Retz, Retz-Junginger, Hengesch, Schneider, Supprian, Schwitzgebel, Pinhard, Dovi-Akue, Wender, Thome (2004): Prevalence of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in young male prison inmates. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 254, 365 – 371, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 232

  68. Engelhardt, Nobes, Pischedda (2019): The Relationship between Adult Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Criminogenic Cognitions. Brain Sci. 2019 Jun 2;9(6). pii: E128. doi: 10.3390/brainsci9060128.

  69. Lichtenstein, Halldner, Zetterqvist, Sjölander, Serlachius, Fazel, Långström, Larsson (2012): Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):2006-14. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203241. PMID: 23171097; PMCID: PMC3664186. n = 25.656

  70. Meisinger C, Freuer D (2023); Understanding the causal relationships of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with mental disorders and suicide attempt: a network Mendelian randomisation study. BMJ Ment Health. 2023 Jul;26(1):e300642. doi: 10.1136/bmjment-2022-300642. PMID: 37669871.

  71. Miesch, Deister (2019): Die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit- und Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) in der Erwachsenenpsychiatrie: Erfassung der ADHS-12-Monatsprävalenz, der Risikofaktoren und Komorbidität bei ADHS. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2019; 87(01): 32-38. DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-119987

  72. Becker, Sharma, Callahan (2022): ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence. Front Aging Neurosci. 2022 Jan 25;13:826213. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.826213. PMID: 35145394; PMCID: PMC8822599. REVIEW

  73. Tzeng NS, Chung CH, Lin FH, Yeh CB, Huang SY, Lu RB, Chang HA, Kao YC, Yeh HW, Chiang WS, Chou YC, Tsao CH, Wu YF, Chien WC (2019): Risk of Dementia in Adults With ADHD: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan. J Atten Disord. 2019 Jul;23(9):995-1006. doi: 10.1177/1087054717714057. PMID: 28629260.

  74. Becker S, Chowdhury M, Tavilsup P, Seitz D, Callahan BL (2023): Risk of neurodegenerative disease or dementia in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Front Psychiatry. 2023 Aug 17;14:1158546. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1158546. PMID: 37663597; PMCID: PMC10469775. REVIEW

  75. Golimstok A, Rojas JI, Romano M, Zurru MC, Doctorovich D, Cristiano E (2011): Previous adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and risk of dementia with Lewy bodies: a case-control study. Eur J Neurol. 2011 Jan;18(1):78-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03064.x. PMID: 20491888. n = 509

  76. Leffa DT, Ferrari-Souza JP, Bellaver B, Tissot C, Ferreira PCL, Brum WS, Caye A, Lord J, Proitsi P, Martins-Silva T, Tovo-Rodrigues L, Tudorascu DL, Villemagne VL, Cohen AD, Lopez OL, Klunk WE, Karikari TK, Rosa-Neto P, Zimmer ER, Molina BSG, Rohde LA, Pascoal TA; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2022): Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predicts cognitive decline and development of Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology in cognitively unimpaired older adults. Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 8. doi: 10.1038/s41380-022-01867-2. PMID: 36476732.

  77. Zhang, Du Rietz, Kuja-Halkola, Dobrosavljevic, Johnell, Pedersen, Larsson, Chang (2021): Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Alzheimer’s disease and any dementia: A multi-generation cohort study in Sweden. Alzheimers Dement. 2021 Sep 9. doi: 10.1002/alz.12462. PMID: 34498801. n = 2.132.929

  78. Burleson Daviss (2018): Depressive Disorders in ADHD, S. 91 in: Burleson Daviss (Hrsg.): Moodiness in ADHD – A Clinicians Guide

  79. Soler Artigas, Sánchez-Mora, Rovira, Vilar-Ribó, Ramos-Quiroga, Ribasés (2022): Mendelian randomization analysis for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: studying a broad range of exposures and outcomes. Int J Epidemiol. 2022 Jun 12:dyac128. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyac128. PMID: 35690959.

  80. Garcia-Argibay M, Brikell I, Thapar A, Lichtenstein P, Lundström S, Demontis D, Larsson H (2023): Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and major depressive disorder: evidence from multiple genetically informed designs. Biol Psychiatry. 2023 Aug 8:S0006-3223(23)01462-2. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2023.07.017. PMID: 37562520.

  81. Biederman, Ball, Monuteaux, Mick, Spencer, McCreary, Cote, Faraone (2008): New Insights Into the Comorbidity Between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 47, Issue 4, 2008, Pages 426-434, ISSN 0890-8567,

  82. Powell, Riglin, Hammerton, Eyre, Martin, Anney, Thapar, Rice (2020): What explains the link between childhood ADHD and adolescent depression? Investigating the role of peer relationships and academic attainment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 13;10.1007/s00787-019-01463-w. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01463-w.. PMID: 31932968.

  83. Moore RD, Kay JJM, Gunn B, Harrison AT, Torres-McGehee T, Pontifex MB (2023). Increased anxiety and depression among collegiate athletes with comorbid ADHD and history of concussion. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2023 Sep;68:102418. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2023.102418. PMID: 37665895.

  84. Biederman, Ball, Monuteaux, Surman, Johnson, Zeitlin (2007): Are Girls with ADHD at Risk for Eating Disorders? Results from a Controlled, Five-Year Prospective Study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: August 2007 – Volume 28 – Issue 4 – p 302-307. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3180327917

  85. ZI Mannheim (Download 2019): Flyer Angststörungen

  86. Wendt FR, Garcia-Argibay M, Cabrera-Mendoza B, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Gelernter J, Stein MB, Nivard MG, Maihofer AX; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Nievergelt CM, Larsson H, Mattheisen M, Polimanti R, Meier SM (2023): The Relationship of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization and Population-Based Sibling Comparison Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2023 Feb 15;93(4):362-369. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.08.012. PMID: 36335070.

  87. Loskutova, Waterman, Callen, Staton, Bullard, Shields (2020): Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Patterns of Health Professionals Toward Medical and Non-medical Stimulant Use by Young Adults. J Am Board Fam Med. 2020 Jan-Feb;33(1):59-70. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.01.190071.

  88. Jaisoorya, Desai, Nair, Rani, Menon, Thennarasu (2019): Association of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms with Academic and Psychopathological Outcomes in Indian College Students: a Retrospective Survey. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2019 Dec;2 9(124):124-128. doi: 10.12809/eaap1771. n = 5.145

  89. Du Rietz, Brikell, Butwicka, Leone, Chang, Cortese, D’Onofrio, Hartman, Lichtenstein, Faraone, Kuja-Halkola, Larsson (2021): Mapping phenotypic and aetiological associations between ADHD and physical conditions in adulthood in Sweden: a genetically informed register study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021 Jul 6:S2215-0366(21)00171-1. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00171-1. PMID: 34242595. n = 4.789.799

  90. Merzon, Israel, Ashkenazi, Rotem, Schneider, Faraone, Biederman, Green, Golan-Cohen, Vinker, Weizman, Manor (2022): IlanAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Is Associated With Increased Rates of Childhood Infectious Diseases: A Population-based Case-Control Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022 Aug 19:S0890-8567(22)01243-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2022.06.018. PMID: 36007815. n = 56.000

  91. Howard, Kennedy, Mitchell, Sibley, Hinshaw, Arnold, Roy, Stehli, Swanson, Molina (2019):Early substance use in the pathway from childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to young adult substance use: Evidence of statistical mediation and substance specificity. Psychol Addict Behav. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1037/adb0000542.

  92. Elkins, Saunders, Malone, Keyes, Samek, McGue, Iacono (2017): Increased Risk of Smoking in Female Adolescents Who Had Childhood ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;175(1):63-70. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17010009. PMID: 28838251; PMCID: PMC5756118.

  93. Kaplan, Marcell, Kaplan, Cohen (2021): Association between e-cigarette use and parents’ report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among US youth. Tob Induc Dis. 2021 Jun 4;19:44. doi: 10.18332/tid/136031. PMID: 34140843; PMCID: PMC8176894. n = 11.801

  94. Charach, Yeung, Climans, Lillie (2011): Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 50, Issue 1, 2011, Pages 9-21, ISSN 0890-8567,

  95. van Amsterdam, van der Velde, Schulte, van den Brink (2018): Causal Factors of Increased Smoking in ADHD: A Systematic Review. Subst Use Misuse. 2018 Feb 23;53(3):432-445. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1334066. PMID: 29039714. REVIEW

  96. Groenman, Oosterlaan, Rommelse, Franke, Roeyers, Oades, Sergeant, Buitelaar, Faraone (2013), Follow‐up of substance use in ADHD. Addiction, 108: 1503-1511. doi:10.1111/add.12188, n = 1017

  97. Thapar AK, Riglin L, Blakey R, Collishaw S, Davey Smith G, Stergiakouli E, Tilling K, Thapar A (2023) Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder problems and mid-life cardiovascular risk: prospective population cohort study. Br J Psychiatry. 2023 Jul 6:1-6. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2023.90. PMID: 37408455.

  98. Pal, Balhara (2016): A Review of Impact of Tobacco Use on Patients with Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders. Tob Use Insights. 2016 Mar 10;9:7-12. doi: 10.4137/TUI.S32201. PMID: 26997871; PMCID: PMC4788174. REVIEW

  99. Zamboni, Marchetti, Congiu, Giordano, Fusina, Carli, Centoni, Verlato, Lugoboni (2021): ASRS Questionnaire and Tobacco Use: Not Just a Cigarette. A Screening Study in an Italian Young Adult Sample. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 12;18(6):2920. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18062920. PMID: 33809225. n = 389

  100. Berg, Haardörfer, Lanier, Childs, Foster, Getachew, Windle (2020): Tobacco use trajectories in young adults: Analyses of predictors across systems levels. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 Mar 14:ntaa048. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntaa048. PMID: 32170324. n = 2.592

  101. Kuppa, Maysun (2019): Risk of Alcohol Abuse in Humans with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms. Cureus. 2019 Oct 25;11(10):e5996. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5996.

  102. Walsh CJ, Rosenberg SL, Hale EW (2022): Obstetric complications in mothers with ADHD. Front Reprod Health. 2022 Nov 7;4:1040824. doi: 10.3389/frph.2022.1040824. PMID: 36419963; PMCID: PMC9678343.

  103. Du R, Zhou Y, You C, Liu K, King DA, Liang ZS, Ranson JM, Llewellyn DJ, Huang J, Zhang Z. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and ischemic stroke: A Mendelian randomization study. Int J Stroke. 2022 Jul 6:17474930221108272. doi: 10.1177/17474930221108272. PMID: 35670701.

  104. Chen F, Cao H, Baranova A, Zhao Q, Zhang F (2023): Causal associations between COVID-19 and childhood mental disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2023 Dec 8;23(1):922. doi: 10.1186/s12888-023-05433-0. PMID: 38066446; PMCID: PMC10704772.

  105. Hua, Huang, Hsu, Bai, Su, Tsai, Li, Lin, Chen, Chen (2020): Early Pregnancy Risk Among Adolescents With ADHD: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study. J Atten Disord. 2020 Jan 23;1087054719900232. doi: 10.1177/1087054719900232. PMID: 31971056.

  106. Cuffe SP, Moore CG, McKeown RE (2005): Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the national health interview survey. J Atten Disord. 2005 Nov;9(2):392-401. doi: 10.1177/1087054705280413. PMID: 16371662. n = 10.367

  107. Christiansen, Labriola, Kirkeskov, Lund (2021): The impact of childhood diagnosed ADHD versus controls without ADHD diagnoses on later labour market attachment-a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2021 Jun 23;15(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s13034-021-00386-2. PMID: 34162422; PMCID: PMC8220843. METASTUDIE

  108. Fleming M, Fitton CA, Steiner MFC, McLay JS, Clark D, King A, Mackay DF, Pell JP (2017): Educational and Health Outcomes of Children Treated for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jul 3;171(7):e170691. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0691. PMID: 28459927; PMCID: PMC6583483. n = 766.244

  109. Rushton, Giallo, Efron (2019): ADHD and emotional engagement with school in the primary years: Investigating the role of student-teacher relationships. Br J Educ Psychol. 2019 Oct 26. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12316. n = 489

  110. Jefsen OH, Holde K, McGrath JJ, Rajagopal VM, Albiñana C, Vilhjálmsson BJ, Grove J, Agerbo E, Yilmaz Z, Plana-Ripoll O, Munk-Olsen T, Demontis D, Børglum A, Mors O, Bulik CM, Mortensen PB, Petersen LV (2023): Polygenic risk of mental disorders and subject-specific school grades. Biol Psychiatry. 2023 Dec 5:S0006-3223(23)01749-3. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2023.11.020. PMID: 38061465.

  111. Hayashi, Suzuki, Saga, Arai, Igarashi, Tokumasu, Ota, Yamada, Takashio, Iwanami (2019): Clinical Characteristics of Women with ADHD in Japan. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Dec 4;15:3367-3374. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S232565. eCollection 2019. n = 335

  112. Barkley, Murphy (1998): ADHD: A Clinical Workbook; Milwaukee Young Adult Outcome Study, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  113. Ahlberg R, Du Rietz E, Ahnemark E, Andersson LM, Werner-Kiechle T, Lichtenstein P, Larsson H, Garcia-Argibay M (2023): Real-life instability in ADHD from young to middle adulthood: a nationwide register-based study of social and occupational problems. BMC Psychiatry. 2023 May 12;23(1):336. doi: 10.1186/s12888-023-04713-z. PMID: 37173664; PMCID: PMC10176742. n = 3.448.440

  114. Lee L, Arunajadai S, Mikl J, Erensen JG, Goodman DW (2023): The Burden of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: A Real-World Linked Data Study. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2023 Mar 14;25(2):22m03348. doi: 10.4088/PCC.22m03348. PMID: 36946563. n = 481

  115. Helgesson M, Kjeldgård L, Björkenstam E, Rahman S, Gustafsson K, Taipale H, Tanskanen A, Ekselius L, Mittendorfer-Rutz E (2023): Sustainable labour market participation among working young adults with diagnosed attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SSM Popul Health. 2023 Jun 12;23:101444. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101444. PMID: 37691973; PMCID: PMC10492158. n = 2.517

  116. Schwörer, Reinelt, Petermann, Petermann (2020): Influence of executive functions on the self-reported health-related quality of life of children with ADHD. Qual Life Res. 2020 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s11136-019-02394-4.

  117. Ghajar, DeBoer (2020): Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Are at Increased Risk for Slowed Growth and Short Stature in Early Childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020 Feb 1:9922820902437. doi: 10.1177/0009922820902437. PMID: 32009447. n = 7.603

  118. Stern, Agnew-Blais, Danese, Fisher, Matthews, Polanczyk, Wertz, Arseneault (2020): Associations between ADHD and emotional problems from childhood to young adulthood: a longitudinal genetically sensitive study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 29:10.1111/jcpp.13217. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13217. PMID: 32112575; PMCID: PMC7483180. n = 2.232

  119. Biederman et al. 2006, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  120. Schmidt, Waldmann, Petermann, Brähler (2010): Wie stark sind Erwachsene mit ADHS und komorbiden Störungen in ihrer gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität beeinträchtigt? Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 58, 9–21, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 229

  121. Baumgarten, Cohrdes, Schienkiewitz, Thamm, Meyrose, Ravens-Sieberer (2019): [Health-related quality of life and its relation to chronic diseases and mental health problems among children and adolescents : Results from KiGGS Wave 2].[Article in German] Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1007/s00103-019-03006-9.

  122. Chang, Ghirardi, Quinn, Asherson, D’Onofrio, Larsson (2019): Risks and Benefits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication on Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Outcomes: A Qualitative Review of Pharmacoepidemiology Studies Using Linked Prescription Databases. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Sep 1;86(5):335-343. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.04.009. METASTUDIE

  123. Boland, DiSalvo, Fried, Woodworth, Wilens, Faraone. Biederman (2020): A literature review and meta-analysis on the effects of ADHD medications on functional outcomes. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Jan 27;123:21-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.006. PMID: 32014701. METASTUDIE

  124. de Faria, Duarte, Ferreira, da Silveira, Menezes de Pádua, Perini (2021): “Real-world” effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving the academic achievement of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosed students-A systematic review. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.13486. PMID: 34254328. METASTUDIE

  125. Chen VC, Chan HL, Wu SI, Lu ML, Dewey, Stewart, Lee CT (2020): Methylphenidate and mortality in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: population-based cohort study. Br J Psychiatry. 2020 Jul 14:1-9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2020.129. PMID: 32662370.

  126. McCarthy, Cranswick, Potts, Taylor, Wong (2009): Mortality associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment: a retrospective cohort study of children, adolescents and young adults using the general practice research database. Drug Saf. 2009;32(11):1089-96. doi: 10.2165/11317630-000000000-00000.

  127. Mechler, Banaschewski, Hohmann, Häge (2021): Evidence-based pharmacological treatment options for ADHD in children and adolescents. Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Jun 23:107940. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107940. PMID: 34174276.

  128. Chang, Quinn, O’Reilly, Sjölander, Hur, Gibbons, Larsson, D’Onofrio (2019): Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Suicide Attempts. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 13;S0006-3223(19)31920-1. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.12.003. PMID: 31987492. n = 3.874.728

  129. Chen, Sjölander, Runeson, D’Onofrio, Lichtenstein, Larsson (2014): Drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study. BMJ. 2014 Jun 18;348:g3769. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3769. PMID: 24942388; PMCID: PMC4062356. n = 37.936

  130. Siffel, DerSarkissian, Kponee-Shovein, Spalding, Gu, Cheng, Duh (2020): Suicidal ideation and attempts in the United States of America among stimulant-treated, non-stimulant-treated, and untreated patients with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Affect Disord. 2020 Jan 22;266:109-119. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.075. PMID: 32063553. n = 797.189

  131. Liang SH, Yang YH, Kuo TY, Liao YT, Lin TC, Lee Y, McIntyre, Kelsen, Wang TN, Chen VC (2018): Suicide risk reduction in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prescribed methylphenidate: A Taiwan nationwide population-based cohort study. Res Dev Disabil. 2018 Jan;72:96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2017.10.023. PMID: 29121517.

  132. Man, Coghill, Chan, Lau, Hollis, Liddle, Banaschewski, McCarthy, Neubert, Sayal, Ip, Schuemie, Sturkenboom, Sonuga-Barke, Buitelaar, Carucci, Zuddas, Kovshoff, Garas, Nagy, Inglis, Konrad, Häge, Rosenthal, Wong (2017). Association of Risk of Suicide Attempts With Methylphenidate Treatment. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 1;74(10):1048-1055. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2183. PMID: 28746699; PMCID: PMC5710471. n = 25.629

  133. Ghirardi, Larsson, Chang, Chen, Quinn, Hur, Gibbons, D’Onofrio (2019): Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication and Unintentional Injuries in Children and Adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 11. pii: S0890-8567(19)30452-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.06.010. n = 1.968.146 AD(H)S-Betroffene

  134. Rockhill (2019): A Spoonful of Injury Prevention Makes the ADHD Medicine Go Down. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 6. pii: S0890-8567(19)32224-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.11.019.

  135. Dalsgaard, Leckman, Mortensen, Nielsen, Simonsen (2015): Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Aug;2(8):702-709. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00271-0. PMID: 26249301. n = 700.000 / 4.557

  136. Liao YT, Yang YH, Kuo TY, Liang HY, Huang KY, Wang TN, Lee Y, McIntyre RS, Chen VC (2018): Dosage of methylphenidate and traumatic brain injury in ADHD: a population-based study in Taiwan. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Mar;27(3):279-288. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1042-7. PMID: 28856464. n = 124.438

  137. Ghirardi, Chen, Chang, Kuja-Halkola, Skoglund, Quinn, D’Onofrio, Larsson (2019): Use of medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019 Oct 18. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13136. n = 9.421

  138. Chang Z, Lichtenstein, D’Onofrio, Sjölander, Larsson (2014): Serious transport accidents in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the effect of medication: a population-based study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;71(3):319-25. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4174. PMID: 24477798; PMCID: PMC3949159.

  139. Chang Z, Quinn, Hur, Gibbons, Sjölander, Larsson, D’Onofrio (2017): Association Between Medication Use for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;74(6):597-603. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0659. PMID: 28492937; PMCID: PMC5539840. n = 2.319.450

  140. Chen MH, Hsu JW, Huang KL, Bai YM, Ko NY, Su TP, Li CT, Lin WC, Tsai SJ, Pan TL, Chang WH, Chen TJ (2018): Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Jan;57(1):48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.438. PMID: 29301669. n = 89.000

  141. Sidrak JP, Blaakman SR, Hale EW (2023): Fracture rates by medication type in attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. Front Surg. 2023 Feb 15;10:973266. doi: 10.3389/fsurg.2023.973266. PMID: 36874450; PMCID: PMC9975348. n = 783.888

  142. Gao L, Man KKC, Fan M, Ge GMQ, Lau WCY, Cheung CL, Coghill D, Ip P, Wong KHTW, Wong ICK (2023): Treatment with methylphenidate and the risk of fractures among children and young people: a systematic review and self-controlled case series study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2023 Mar 14. doi: 10.1111/bcp.15714. PMID: 36918367. METASTUDIE

  143. DeFroda, Quinn, Yang, Daniels, Owens (2020): The effects of methylphenidate on stress fractures in patients’ ages 10-29: a national database study. Phys Sportsmed. 2020 Feb 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2020.1725400. PMID: 32013692. n = 861.029

  144. Chen VC, Yang YH, Liao YT, Kuo TY, Liang HY, Huang KY, Huang YC, Lee Y, McIntyre RS, Lin TC (2017): The association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk for fracture among young ADHD patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2017 Mar 15;12(3):e0173762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173762. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2017 Apr 6;12 (4):e0175617. PMID: 28296941; PMCID: PMC5351966.

  145. Ghirardi, Chen, Chang, Kuja-Halkola, Skoglund, Quinn, D’Onofrio, Larsson (2020): Use of medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020 Feb;61(2):140-147. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13136. PMID: 31625605; PMCID: PMC6980200. n = 9.421

  146. Ruiz-Goikoetxea, Cortese, Aznarez-Sanado, Magallón, Alvarez Zallo, Luis, de Castro-Manglano, Soutullo, Arrondo (2018): Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Jan;84:63-71. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.007. PMID: 29162520. n = 13.254, METASTUDIE

  147. Gao, Man, Chan, Chui, Li, Coghill, Hon, Tse, Lum, Wong, Ip, Wong (2021): Treatment with Methylphenidate for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the Risk of All-Cause Poisoning in Children and Adolescents: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study. CNS Drugs. 2021 Jul;35(7):769-779. doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00824-x. PMID: 34283391; PMCID: PMC8310501.

  148. Man, Chan EW, Coghill, Douglas, Ip, Leung LP, Tsui MS, Wong WH, Wong IC (2015): Methylphenidate and the risk of trauma. Pediatrics. 2015 Jan;135(1):40-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1738. PMID: 25511122. n = 17.381

  149. Chen VC, Yang YH, Yu Kuo T, Lu ML, Tseng WT, Hou TY, Yeh JY, Lee CT, Chen YL, Lee MJ, Dewey, Gossop (2020): Methylphenidate and the risk of burn injury among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2020 Jul 20;29:e146. doi: 10.1017/S2045796020000608. PMID: 32686635; PMCID: PMC7372158. n = 90.634

  150. Reale L, Bartoli B, Cartabia M, Zanetti M, Costantino MA, Canevini MP, Termine C, Bonati M; Lombardy ADHD Group (2017): Comorbidity prevalence and treatment outcome in children and adolescents with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Dec;26(12):1443-1457. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1005-z. Epub 2017 May 19. PMID: 28527021.

  151. Chang Z, D’Onofrio, Quinn, Lichtenstein, Larsson (2016): Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Depression: A Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 15;80(12):916-922. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.02.018. PMID: 27086545; PMCID: PMC4995143.

  152. Park J, Lee DY, Kim C, Lee YH, Yang SJ, Lee S, Kim SJ, Lee J, Park RW, Shin Y (2022): Long-term methylphenidate use for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk for depression, conduct disorder, and psychotic disorder: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study in South Korea. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2022 Oct 11;16(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s13034-022-00515-5. PMID: 36221129; PMCID: PMC9554986. n = 1.309

  153. Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Spencer T, Wilens TE, Faraone SV (2009): Do stimulants protect against psychiatric disorders in youth with ADHD? A 10-year follow-up study. Pediatrics. 2009 Jul;124(1):71-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-3347. PMID: 19564285; PMCID: PMC2954591.

  154. Coetzee C, Schellekens AFA, Truter I, Meyer A (2022): Effect of Past Pharmacotherapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Substance Use Disorder. Eur Addict Res. 2023;29(1):9-18. doi: 10.1159/000526386. PMID: 36349763. n = 59

  155. Schoenfelder, Faraone, Kollins (2014): Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):1070-80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0179. PMID: 24819571; PMCID: PMC4531271. 14 Studien, n =2.360; METASTUDIE

  156. Chang, Lichtenstein, Halldner, D’Onofrio, Serlachius, Fazel, Långström, Larsson (2014): Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;55(8):878-85. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12164. PMID: 25158998; PMCID: PMC4147667. n = 38.753

  157. Groenman AP, Oosterlaan J, Rommelse NN, Franke B, Greven CU, Hoekstra PJ, Hartman CA, Luman M, Roeyers H, Oades RD, Sergeant JA, Buitelaar JK, Faraone SV (2013): Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;203(2):112-9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.124784. Erratum in: Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;204(6):494. PMID: 23846996.

  158. Humphreys, Eng T, Lee SS (2013): Stimulant medication and substance use outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;70(7):740-9. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1273. PMID: 23754458; PMCID: PMC6688478. METAANALYSE

  159. Wilens, Faraone, Biederman, Gunawardene (2003): Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature; Pediatrics. 2003 Jan;111(1):179-85.

  160. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Springer, Seite 120

  161. Fluyau D, Revadigar N, Pierre CG (2021): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Treatment of Substance Use Disorder in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am J Addict. 2021 Mar;30(2):110-121. doi: 10.1111/ajad.13133. PMID: 33289928. METASTUDY

  162. Hesapcıoglu, Kandemir (2020): Association of methylphenidate use and traditional/cyberbullying. Pediatr Int. 2020 Feb 5:10.1111/ped.14185. doi: 10.1111/ped.14185. PMID: 32022957.

  163. Lin CC, Chung CH, Chien WC, Tzeng NS (2023): Pharmacotherapy May Attenuate the Risk of Child Abuse in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder from the Real-World Evidence. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2023 Mar;33(2):59-68. doi: 10.1089/cap.2023.0003. PMID: 36944094.

  164. Buitelaar NJL, Posthumus JA, Bijlenga D, Buitelaar JK (2021): The Impact of ADHD Treatment on Intimate Partner Violence in a Forensic Psychiatry Setting. J Atten Disord. 2021 May;25(7):1021-1031. doi: 10.1177/1087054719879502. PMID: 31619111.

  165. Mohr-Jensen, Müller Bisgaard, Boldsen, Steinhausen (2019): Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence and the Risk of Crime in Young Adulthood in a Danish Nationwide Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Apr;58(4):443-452. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2018.11.016. PMID: 30768385. n = 4.200

  166. Widding-Havneraas T, Zachrisson HD, Markussen S, Elwert F, Lyhmann I, Chaulagain A, Bjelland I, Halmoy A, Rypdal K, Mykletun A (2023): Effect of Pharmacological Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Criminality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2023 Jun 23:S0890-8567(23)00340-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2023.05.025. PMID: 37385582.

  167. Jangmo, Stålhandske, Chang Z, Chen Q, Almqvist, Feldman, Bulik, Lichtenstein, D’Onofrio, Kuja-Halkola, Larsson (2019): Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, School Performance, and Effect of Medication. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Apr;58(4):423-432. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2018.11.014. PMID: 30768391; PMCID: PMC6541488. n = 657.720

  168. Lu Y, Sjölander, Cederlöf, D’Onofrio, Almqvist, Larsson, Lichtenstein (2017): Association Between Medication Use and Performance on Higher Education Entrance Tests in Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Aug 1;74(8):815-822. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.1472. PMID: 28658471; PMCID: PMC5710548. n = 61.000

  169. Keilow, Holm, Fallesen (2018): Medical treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Dis)order (ADHD) and children’s academic performance. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 29;13(11):e0207905. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207905. PMID: 30496240; PMCID: PMC6264851. n = 6.400

  170. Chong TT, Fortunato E, Bellgrove MA (2023): Amphetamines improve the motivation to invest effort in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Neurosci. 2023 Sep 4:JN-RM-0982-23. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0982-23.2023. PMID: 37666665. n = 44

  171. Tsujii, Okada, Usami, Kuwabara, Fujita, Negoro, Kawamura, Iida, Saito (2020): Effect of Continuing and Discontinuing Medications on Quality of Life After Symptomatic Remission in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 24;81(3):19r13015. doi: 10.4088/JCP.19r13015. PMID: 32237294. n = 1.463 METASTUDIE

  172. Döpfner, Mandler, Breuer, Schürmann, Dose, Walter, von Wirth (2020): Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Grown Up: An 18-Year Follow-Up after Multimodal Treatment. J Atten Disord. 2020 Aug 10:1087054720948133. doi: 10.1177/1087054720948133. PMID: 32772881. n = 70

  173. Battison EAJ, Brown PCM, Holley AL, Wilson AC (2023): Associations between Chronic Pain and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Youth: A Scoping Review. Children (Basel). 2023 Jan 11;10(1):142. doi: 10.3390/children10010142. PMID: 36670692; PMCID: PMC9857366. REVIEW

  174. Biederman, DiSalvo, Fried, Woodworth, Biederman, Faraone (2019): Quantifying the Protective Effects of Stimulants on Functional Outcomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focus on Number Needed to Treat Statistic and Sex Effects, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2019, ISSN 1054-139X,

  175. Marchetti A, Magar R, Lau H, Murphy EL, Jensen PS, Conners CK, Findling R, Wineburg E, Carotenuto I, Einarson TR, Iskedjian M (2001): Pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: expected-cost analysis. Clin Ther. 2001 Nov;23(11):1904-21. doi: 10.1016/s0149-2918(00)89086-4. PMID: 11768842.

  176. Jennum P, Hastrup LH, Ibsen R, Kjellberg J, Simonsen E (2020): Welfare consequences for people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A matched nationwide study in Denmark. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020 Aug;37:29-38. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.04.010. PMID: 32682821. n = 456.421

  177. Leibson, Katusic, Barbaresi, Ransom, O’Brien (2001): Use and Costs of Medical Care for Children and Adolescents With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA. 2001;285(1):60-66. doi:10.1001/jama.285.1.60

  178. Le HH, Hodgkins P, Postma MJ, Kahle J, Sikirica V, Setyawan J, Erder MH, Doshi JA (2014): Economic impact of childhood/adolescent ADHD in a European setting: the Netherlands as a reference case. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;23(7):587-98. doi: 10.1007/s00787-013-0477-8. PMID: 24166532; PMCID: PMC4077218.

  179. Secnik K, Swensen A, Lage MJ (2005): Comorbidities and costs of adult patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(1):93-102. doi: 10.2165/00019053-200523010-00008. PMID: 15693731. n = 4.504

  180. Bui AL, Dieleman JL, Hamavid H, Birger M, Chapin A, Duber HC, Horst C, Reynolds A, Squires E, Chung PJ, Murray CJ (2017): Spending on Children’s Personal Health Care in the United States, 1996-2013. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Feb 1;171(2):181-189. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4086. PMID: 28027344; PMCID: PMC5546095.

  181. Guo L, Danielson M, Cogan L, Hines L, Armour B. (2021):Treatment Patterns and Costs Among Children Aged 2 to 17 Years With ADHD in New York State Medicaid in 2013. J Atten Disord. 2021 Feb;25(4):463-472. doi: 10.1177/1087054718816176. PMID: 30547693; PMCID: PMC6570581.

  182. Fraiman YS, Guyol G, Acevedo-Garcia D, Beck AF, Burris H, Coker TR, Tiemeier H (2023): A Narrative Review of the Association between Prematurity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Accompanying Inequities across the Life-Course. Children (Basel). 2023 Sep 30;10(10):1637. doi: 10.3390/children10101637. PMID: 37892300; PMCID: PMC10605109.

  183. Schein J, Adler LA, Childress A, Gagnon-Sanschagrin P, Davidson M, Kinkead F, Cloutier M, Guérin A, Lefebvre P (2022): Economic burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adults in the United States: a societal perspective. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2022 Feb;28(2):168-179. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2021.21290. PMID: 34806909.

  184. De Ridder A, De Graeve D (2003): Healthcare use, social burden and costs of children with and without ADHD in Flanders, Belgium. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26(2):75-90. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200626020-00003. PMID: 17163238.

  185. Chorozoglou M, Smith E, Koerting J, Thompson MJ, Sayal K, Sonuga-Barke EJ (2015): Preschool hyperactivity is associated with long-term economic burden: evidence from a longitudinal health economic analysis of costs incurred across childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;56(9):966-75. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12437. PMID: 26072954; PMCID: PMC4744758. n = 258

  186. Zhao, Page, Altszuler, Pelham III, Kipp, Gnagy, Coxe, Schatz, Merrill, Macphee, Pelham Jr. (2019): Family Burden of Raising a Child with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. August 2019, Volume 47, Issue 8, pp 1327–1338

  187. National Alliance for Caregiving (NAC). On pins and needles: caregivers of adults with mental illness. February 2016.

  188. National Alliance for Caregiving (NAC). Caregiving in the U.S.: 2015 report. June 2015.

  189. Doshi JA, Hodgkins P, Kahle J, Sikirica V, Cangelosi MJ, Setyawan J, Erder MH, Neumann PJ (2012): Economic impact of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Oct;51(10):990-1002.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.07.008. PMID: 23021476. REVIEW

  190. Kessler RC, Adler L, Ames M, Barkley RA, Birnbaum H, Greenberg P, Johnston JA, Spencer T, Ustün TB (2005): The prevalence and effects of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder on work performance in a nationally representative sample of workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2005 Jun;47(6):565-72. doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000166863.33541.39. PMID: 15951716.

  191. Jangmo A, Kuja-Halkola R, Pérez-Vigil A, Almqvist C, Bulik CM, D’Onofrio B, Lichtenstein P, Ahnemark E, Werner-Kiechle T, Larsson H (2021): Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and occupational outcomes: The role of educational attainment, comorbid developmental disorders, and intellectual disability. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 17;16(3):e0247724. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247724. PMID: 33730071; PMCID: PMC7968636. n = 1,2 Mio

  192. Sobanski E, Brüggemann D, Alm B, Kern S, Deschner M, Schubert T, Philipsen A, Rietschel M (2007): Psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment in a clinically referred sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007 Oct;257(7):371-7. doi: 10.1007/s00406-007-0712-8. PMID: 17902010. n = 140

  193. Dalsgaard S, Østergaard SD, Leckman JF, Mortensen PB, Pedersen MG (2015): Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study. Lancet. 2015 May 30;385(9983):2190-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61684-6. PMID: 25726514.

  194. Swensen A, Birnbaum HG, Ben Hamadi R, Greenberg P, Cremieux PY, Secnik K (2004): Incidence and costs of accidents among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Oct;35(4):346.e1-9. PMID: 15830457. n > 100.000

  195. Schöffski O, Sohn S, Happich M (2008): Die gesamtgesellschaftliche Belastung durch die hyperkinetische Störung (HKS) bzw. Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) [Overall burden to society caused by hyperkinetic syndrome (HKS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. Gesundheitswesen. 2008 Jul;70(7):398-403. German. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1082049. PMID: 18729028.

  196. Schlander M, Trott GE, Schwarz O. Gesundheitsökonomie der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung in Deutschland Teil 1: Versorgungsepidemiologie und Krankheitskosten [The health economics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Germany. Part 1: Health care utilization and cost of illness]. Nervenarzt. 2010 Mar;81(3):289-300. German. doi: 10.1007/s00115-009-2888-9. PMID: 20232510.

  197. Hong M, Park B, Lee SM, Bahn GH, Kim MJ, Park S, Oh IH, Park H (2020): Economic Burden and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Atten Disord. 2020 Apr;24(6):823-829. doi: 10.1177/1087054719864632. PMID: 31364445.

  198. Pelham, Page, Altszuler, Gnagy, Molina, Pelham (2019): The long-term financial outcome of children diagnosed with ADHD. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2019 Dec 2. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000461. n = 604

  199. Daley, Jacobsen, Lange, Sørensen, Walldorf (2019): The economic burden of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A sibling comparison cost analysis. Eur Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 6;61:41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.06.011. n = 420 Zwillingspaare

  200. Biederman J, Faraone SV (2006): The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income. MedGenMed. 2006 Jul 18;8(3):12. PMID: 17406154; PMCID: PMC1781280. n = 1.000

  201. Kotsopoulos N, Connolly MP, Sobanski E, Postma MJ (2013) The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2013 Mar;16(1):27-33. PMID: 23676413.

  202. Shea, Perera, Mills (2019): Towards a fuller assessment of the economic benefits of reducing air pollution from fossil fuel combustion: Per-case monetary estimates for children’s health outcomes. Environ Res. 2019 Dec 9;182:109019. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.109019.

  203. Sciberras E, Streatfeild J, Ceccato T, Pezzullo L, Scott JG, Middeldorp CM, Hutchins P, Paterson R, Bellgrove MA, Coghill D (2022): Social and Economic Costs of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Across the Lifespan. J Atten Disord. 2022 Jan;26(1):72-87. doi: 10.1177/1087054720961828. PMID: 33047627.

  204. Daley D, Jacobsen RH, Lange AM, Sørensen A, Walldorf J (2019): The economic burden of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A sibling comparison cost analysis. Eur Psychiatry. 2019 Sep;61:41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.06.011. PMID: 31288209. n = 420 Zwillingspaare

  205. Schein J, Adler LA, Childress A, Cloutier M, Gagnon-Sanschagrin P, Davidson M, Kinkead F, Guerin A, Lefebvre P (2022): Economic burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in the United States: a societal perspective. J Med Econ. 2022 Jan-Dec;25(1):193-205. doi: 10.1080/13696998.2022.2032097. PMID: 35068300.

  206. Pelham WE, Foster EM, Robb JA (2007): The economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Ambul Pediatr. 2007 Jan-Feb;7(1 Suppl):121-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ambp.2006.08.002. PMID: 17261491.