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Frequency of ADHD (prevalence)

Frequency of ADHD (prevalence)

ADHD exists in all cultures and countries worldwide. The frequency of occurrence is called prevalence.

Prevalence can define different terms:
(Diagnostic) prevalence: Frequency of existing medical diagnoses of a disease in the total population (e.g., within the last 12 months).
True prevalence / field prevalence: Frequency of a disease when a representative group is thoroughly examined by experts, extrapolated to the total population. However, this value also depends on the instruments used.
Treatment prevalence: Prevalence determined from treatment / screening contacts.
Administrative prevalence: Prevalence determined from routine statistics (e.g., cancer registries).

Point prevalence: number of existing cases at a point in time.
Period prevalence: all occurring cases in a period.

Incidence: Frequency of new diagnoses of a disease in the total population (e.g., within the last 12 months).

The diagnostic prevalence of ADHD, i.e., the frequency with which practicing physicians and psychologists detect ADHD, has risen sharply in recent years as ADHD has become better understood and physicians and psychologists are now better trained. In contrast, the true prevalence, that is, the frequency with which ADHD actually exists, has not changed. In test studies in which representative groups are examined by specialists, the true prevalence of ADHD is unchanged.1

Where we use the term prevalence without further explanation, we will refer to diagnostic prevalence in the future. As of April 2021, this differentiation has not yet been consistently verified, which is complicated by the fact that several studies do not formulate this transparently.

1. Population prevalence

1.1. Worldwide

The overall average prevalence in 2007 from studies conducted from 1978 to 2005 was 5.29%.2 Little difference was found between North America and Europe, while deviating values were found for Africa and the Middle East.
in 2018, one study identified a prevalence of around 5% in children and adolescents and another 5% just below the cutoff for a diagnosis.3 in 2012, a meta-analysis of 86 studies with n = 163,688 children and adolescents determined a prevalence cutoff of 5.9% to 7.1% according to DSM IV and 11 studies with n = 14,112 adults of around 5%.4

The following differences in (diagnostic) prevalence in different regions of the world are likely to represent differences in diagnostic methodology rather than the true prevalence of ADHD.5

1.2. Europe

1.2.1. Germany

The first KiGGS study in 2006 found that just under 5% of children and adolescents in Germany aged 3-17 had already received a medical diagnosis of ADHD (diagnosis prevalence). In addition, a further 5% could be classified as suspected cases.6
The second KiGGS study from 2017 speaks of 4.4% of children and adolescents who had already received a medical diagnosis once.78 These are reports from the parents or guardians. The statement that an ADHD diagnosis was made once does not mean that this diagnosis must still exist at the time of the study survey.

The overall prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents was found to be 2.2% in the 2007 Bella study9 (which we consider too low). A Bella sub-study with n= 2500 subjects between 7 and 17 years10 names the prevalence in parent assessment at around 5%. Both representations confirm a strong discrepancy of the prevalence according to social classes. According to the 2007 Bella study, the middle class is burdened with the average prevalence, while the lower social class has a prevalence of 3.9%, four times higher than the upper class.11 The Bella sub-study reports a prevalence of ADHD in the lower social stratum (at 7.2%) approximately 2.3 times higher than in the upper stratum at 2.8% (for 3 strata).10

33.3% of all Germans and 38.8% of all EU citizens suffer from a mental disorder (within 12 months). Men and women are affected with roughly the same frequency, but with different types of disorders. The age group most frequently affected is 18 to 34 years.12
Of these 33.3%, 1/3 (i.e. a total of 11.1% of all Germans) suffer from more than one disorder. In these cases, there is an open comorbidity of several disorders from different diagnostic groups. The comorbidity with regard to different individual diagnoses from the same group is again significantly higher.
Comorbidities increase with age.12

The lifetime prevalence of ADHD in Germany is similar to that of diabetes.13

Further elaborating on the prevalence distribution of ADHD

1.2.2. Denmark

A cohort study in Denmark found a prevalence of 5.9% in boys under 18 years of age according to ICD 10.14 Another study among all children born from 1990 to 199 found a prevalence of 3.68%.15

1.2.3. Finland

In Finland, a national cohort study observed an increase in ADHD medication administration in children from 1.26% in 2008 to 4.42% in 2018 and in adolescents from 0.93% in 2008 to 4.21% in 2018. At the same time, the proportion of females on medication increased.16

1.2.4. France

ADHD prevalence in children aged 6 to 12 years has been reported as 3.5% to 5.6%. Another study gives a value of 0.3%,17 which seems too low.

1.3. North America

1.3.1. USA

In the U.S., the frequency of diagnosis of all developmental disabilities, including ADHD, increased significantly from 2009 to 2018:181920

  • Children aged 3 to 17 years with ADHD diagnosis (diagnosis prevalence)
    • 2010: 8 %
    • 2017: 8.5 % to 9.5 %18
    • 2018: 9,8 %
    • Boys
      • 2010: 11 %
      • 2018: 13 %
    • Girls
      • 2010: 6 %
      • 2018: 6,6 %
    • By age (2018)
      • 3-4: Learning disability 3.2 %, ADHD 1.2 %
        5-11: Learning disability 6.7%, ADHD 9%
        12-17: learning disability 9.4 %, ADHD 13.6 %
  • Children aged 4 to 17 years in a nationwide telephone survey (diagnosis prevalence)21
    • 2003: 7,8 %
    • 2007: 9.5%; 4.8% taking ADHD medication
  • Children 5 to 11 years of age in California (diagnosis prevalence)22
    • 2001: 2,1 %
    • 2010: 3,1 %

Hispanic children were less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis (2010: 4%; 2018: 2018: 6.9%) than non-Hispanic white (2010: 10%; 2018: 10.9%) or non-Hispanic black (2010: 11%; 2018: 13.1%) children. Children of couples with one white and one American Indian/Alaska Native parent had an ADHD prevalence of 26.4% in 2018.
Children of single mothers were about twice as likely to show learning difficulties (1010: 12%; 2018: 11.3%) or ADHD (2010: 13%; 2018: 12.6%) as children in two-parent families (learning difficulties 2010: 6%, 2018: 5.9%; ADHD 2010: 7%, 2018: 8.8%). Children of single fathers had only 5% learning difficulties and 6.7% ADHD in 2018.
Children with moderate or poor health were about five times more likely to show learning disabilities (2010: 28% to 6%; 2018: 32.3% to 5.9%) and about twice as likely to show ADHD (2010: 18% to 7%; 2018: 16.2% to 8.8%) as children with excellent or very good health. In good health, ADHD was barely more common in 2018 (15.4%) than in moderate or poor health.
Children in large cities over 1 million population were less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis in 2018 (8.2%) than children in cities under 1 million (12%) or outside large cities (11.6%).
Among war veterans, an increase in annual ADHD prevalence of approximately 250% from 0.23 to 0.84% was observed between 2009 and 2016.23
Friedmann reports that the lifetime prevalence of ADHD in the USA has increased from 7.8% in 2003 to 11% in 2011.24 This is not due to an increase in ADHD (true prevalence), but to the fact that ADHD is now better recognized and more reliably diagnosed (diagnostic prevalence).

The increase in diagnostic prevalence is likely explained by improved diagnosis of ADHD. The true prevalence of ADHD in children in the United States did not change from 2003 to 2007.5

1.3.2. Canada

In Canadian children, ADHD has been diagnosed in25

  • Girl
    • 2008: 3,1 %
    • 2015: 3,9 %
  • Boys
    • 2008: 8 %
    • 2015: 9,5 %

In contrast, the calculated true prevalence was26

  • 4 - 17 years
    • 2008: 6,92 %
      • Girls: 6.0 %
      • Boys: 7.9 %
    • 2015: 8,57 %
      • Girls: 6,5 %
      • Boys: 10.1 %
  • 18 - 34 years
    • 2008: 5,73 %
      • Women: 5.4 %
      • Men: 6.2 %
    • 2015: 7,33 %
      • Women: 6.3 %
      • Men: 8.6 %
  • 35 - 64 years
    • 2008: 5,20 %
      • Women: 5.2 %
      • Men: 5.3 %
    • 2015: 5,54 %
      • Women: 5.4 %
      • Men: 5.7 %

1.4. South America

1.4.1. Colombia

Among Paisa children in Colombia, one study found an ADHD prevalence of 16.4% (boys 19.8%, girls 12.3%).27

1.5. Asia

1.5.1. China

In China, the prevalence was found to be 6.26% in children and adolescents (63 studies from 1983 to 2015, 70% of which were from 2005 to 2015), with significant regional differences.28

1.5.2. Japan

Among Japanese adults, ADHD prevalence is reported to be 1.7%.29

Among Japanese female students (∅ 19.2 years), ADHD-HI was found in 27.2% and ADHD-I in 1.1%.30 Another study reported 27% ADHD in Japanese students (29.7% males, 25.3% females).31

One study reported 31.1% ADHD by parent report (n = 7,566) and 4.3% ADHD by teacher report (n = 9,9 56) for an overall prevalence of 7.2% to 7.9% among Japanese preschool children. It is possible that parent reports are not robust in Japan for cultural reasons.32 Another study also finds evidence of inflated parent ratings for young children in Japan.33 While parents of 4 to 12 year olds identified an ADHD rate of 7.7%, teacher ratings of children identified ADHD (according to DSM III) in only 3.19%.

1.5.3. Taiwan

One large study found an increase in new ADHD diagnoses by ICD 9 from 7.92/10000 person-years in 2000 to 13.92/10000 person-years in 2011, with the male-to-female ratio decreasing from 3.61 to 2.90. The largest increase was found in young adults (19-30 years), followed by preschoolers (0-6 years).34

1.5.4. India

A large study named the prevalence of ADHD in India in 2017 as 0.3%.35 The prevalence of ASD was reported to be 3.2%.

A rural area of northern India was found to have a prevalence of AD36

1.6. Africa

1.6.1. Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, a 2022 study of children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years found a field prevalence of 13%.37 in 2015, a study of 6- to 17-year-olds found a prevalence of 7.3%. It affected 80% more boys than girls, children of single parents were 5 times more likely to be affected, and children from families with low socioeconomic status were 2.4 times more likely to be affected.38

1.6.2. Ghana

A 2016 study in Ghana found a prevalence of 1.64% among children 7 to 15 years of age.39

1.7. Middle East

1.7.1. Iran

In Iran, a study published in 2019 found a prevalence of 4% (5.2% in boys, 2.7% in girls) between 6 and 18 years of age.40

1.7.2. Saudi Arabia

A study of 2280 students from 11 colleges at King Abdulaziz University, one of the largest universities in Saudi Arabia, were personally assessed with a validated Arabic version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Of the 2059 students (90%) who completed the questionnaire (mean age: 21.2 years), 11.9% of the sample met criteria for adult ADHD. Only 6.5% had been diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, and only 0.8% had taken medication for it
This is one of the few studies on the true prevalence (field prevalence) of ADHD.41
The ADHD risk correlated with

  • high family income
  • bad grades in the last semester
  • Divorce of parents
  • ADHD diagnosis in childhood
  • previous depression diagnosis
  • higher severity of current depression and anxiety
  • Cigarette smoking.

2. Differences in different ethnic groups

One meta-study found the following ADHD prevalences by ethnicity among children and adolescents:42

Whites: 16.8%, n = 835,505, k = 25
Blacks: 15.9% n = 218,445, k = 26
Asians: 12.4%, n = 66,413, k = 7
Latin American: 10.1%, n = 493,417, k = 24

N indicates the number of subjects, K the number of studies evaluated. There were no significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity.

A study of 5.2 million patients concluded that the incidence of ADHD was population dependent:43

  • Whites: 0.67 %-1.42 %
  • Indians: 0.56 %-1.14 %
  • Hispanic or Latino: 0.25%-0.65%
  • Colored: 0.22 %-0.69 %
  • Asian-Americans: 0.11%-0.35%
  • Pacific Islanders: 0.11%-0.39%
  • Individuals of other ethnicities: 0.29%-0.71%

This is not the lifetime prevalence of the total population, but the frequency of diagnoses given within a year to patients using a particular medical record system44.
Since ADHD is largely genetic, a difference in prevalence between different ethnic groups is not surprising.

Notes on the concepts of population and race:45

  • The term race characterizes humanity as a whole. There are no different races of people.
  • The English term race does not designate a genetic definition, but a social construct.
  • The genetic differences between continents are gradual. For example, there are groups of people in Africa (e.g. the San) who have lighter skin than groups of people in Europe (e.g. in Andalusia). The light skin color of Europeans was formed only a few thousand years ago. Before that, all people were more or less “black”.
  • Over a family tree of 4000 years, every human being is related by blood to every other human being.

3. Prevalence in certain social groups

3.1. Prison Inmates

One study found an ADHD field prevalence (“true prevalence”) among adult prison inmates in the United Kingdom of 25%.46 In France (11%) and Canada (17%), field prevalence was found in prisons with more stringent diagnostic criteria.47
Field prevalence is determined by examinations of a previously defined group of subjects by specialists and is to be distinguished from treatment prevalence (diagnosis prevalence), which is the frequency of existing diagnoses on the part of the normal medical profession

3.2. Refugees and asylum seekers under 18 years of age

Among refugees and asylum seekers under 18 years of age, a meta-study of 8 studies found an ADHD prevalence of 8.6% (1% to 16%), with concomitant PTSD (22.71%), anxiety disorders (15.77%), depression (13.81%), and ODD (1.77%).48 In our opinion, the high levels of PTSD, anxiety disorders, and depression may have masked the true prevalence of ADHD in the studied target group.

4. Prevalence in psychiatric hospitals

Among adult inpatients in a German psychiatric hospital, 59% were diagnosed with ADHD (12-month prevalence).49
Adult patients of outpatient treatment centers were found to have ADHD prevalence ranging from 14.7% to 26.1%.50

  1. Polanczyk, Willcutt, Salum, Kieling, Rohde (2014): ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;43(2):434-42. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt261. PMID: 24464188; PMCID: PMC4817588.

  2. Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman, Rohde (2007): The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;164(6):942-8. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.6.942. PMID: 17541055. REVIEW, Metaanalyse von 102 Studien mit n = 171.756

  3. Sayal, Prasad, Daley, Ford, Coghill (2018): ADHD in children and young people: prevalence, care pathways, and service provision. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Feb;5(2):175-186. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30167-0. Epub 2017 Oct 9. PMID: 29033005.

  4. Willcutt (2012): The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):490-9. doi: 10.1007/s13311-012-0135-8. PMID: 22976615; PMCID: PMC3441936.

  5. Polanczyk, Willcutt, Salum, Kieling, Rohde (2014): ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;43(2):434-42. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt261. PMID: 24464188; PMCID: PMC4817588. REVIEW

  6. KiGGS Studie 2006, n = 14.836

  7. KiGGS Studie 2017

  8. Schlack, Hölling, Kurth, Huss (2007): Die Prävalenz der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Erste Ergebnisse aus dem Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KiGGS) [The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children and adolescents in Germany. Initial results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2007 May-Jun;50(5-6):827-35. German. doi: 10.1007/s00103-007-0246-2. PMID: 17514469.

  9. Ravens-Sieberer, Wille, Bettge, Erhart (2007): Ergebnisse aus der BELLA-Studie im Kinder und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KiGGS); Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, BRD, Psychische Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland; Bundesgesundheitsbl-Gesundheitsforsch-Gesundheitsschutz 2007 · 50:871–878; DOI 10.1007/s00103-007-0250-6

  10. Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (Herausgeber) (2010): Handbuch ADHS; Grundlagen, Klinik, Therapie und Verlauf der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung, Kohlhammer, Seite 136

  11. Ravens-Sieberer, Wille, Bettge, Erhart (2007): Ergebnisse aus der BELLA-Studie im Kinder und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KiGGS); Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, BRD, Psychische Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland; Bundesgesundheitsbl-Gesundheitsforsch-Gesundheitsschutz 2007 · 50:871–878; DOI 10.1007/s00103-007-0250-6, Seite 875

  12. Jacobi, Höfler, Strehle, Mack, Gerschler, Scholl, Busch, Maske, Hapke, Gaebel, Maier, Wagner, Zielasek, Wittchen (2014): Psychische Störungen in der Allgemeinbevölkerung. Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland und ihr Zusatzmodul Psychische Gesundheit (DEGS1-MH).

  13. Heidemann, Du, Scheidt-Nave (2012): Wie hoch ist die Zahl der Erwachsenen mit Diabetes in Deutschland? Robert Koch Institut

  14. Dalsgaard, Thorsteinsson, Trabjerg, Schullehner, Plana-Ripoll, Brikell, Wimberley, Thygesen, Madsen, Timmerman, Schendel, McGrath, Mortensen, Pedersen (2019): Incidence Rates and Cumulative Incidences of the Full Spectrum of Diagnosed Mental Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Nov 20. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.3523. n= 99.926

  15. Keilow, Wu, Obel (2020): Cumulative social disadvantage and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results from a nationwide cohort study. SSM Popul Health. 2020 Jan 31;10:100548. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100548. PMID: 32072007; PMCID: PMC7016018. n = 632.725

  16. Vuori, Koski-Pirilä, Martikainen, Saastamoinen (2020) Gender- and age-stratified analyses of ADHD medication use in children and adolescents in Finland using population-based longitudinal data, 2008-2018. Scand J Public Health. 2020 Jan 27;1403494820901426. doi: 10.1177/1403494820901426. PMID: 31985349.

  17. Ponnou, Haliday (2020): ADHD Diagnosis and Drug Use Estimates in France: A Case for Using Health Care Insurance Data. J Atten Disord. 2020 Feb 17:1087054720905664. doi: 10.1177/1087054720905664. PMID: 32065015.

  18. Zablotsky, Black, Maenner, Schieve, Danielson, Bitsko, Blumberg, Kogan, Boyle (2019): Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the United States: 2009-2017. Pediatrics. 2019 Sep 26. pii: e20190811. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0811.

  19. Summary health statistics for U.S. children; National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Series: Vital and health statistics. Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey; no. 250; DHHS publication; no. (PHS) 2012-1578

  20. Summary health statistics for U.S. children; National Health Interview Survey, 2018.

  21. zitiert nach Polanczyk, Willcutt, Salum, Kieling, Rohde (2014): ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;43(2):434-42. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt261. PMID: 24464188; PMCID: PMC4817588. REVIEW, mit n = zwischen 73.123 und 102 353 pro Jahr

  22. Getahun, Jacobsen, Fassett, Chen, Demissie, Rhoads (2013): Recent trends in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Mar 1;167(3):282-8. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.401. PMID: 23338799. N = 842.830

  23. Hale, Bohnert, Spencer, Ganoczy, Pfeiffer (2020): The Prevalence and Incidence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Veterans Health Administration From 2009 to 2016. Med Care. 2020 Mar;58(3):273-279. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001287. PMID: 32049948. n = 5,09 Millionen pro Jahr

  24. Friedmann, in New York Times Online: A Natural Fix on A.D.H.D, Sunday Review, 31.10.2014

  25. Leung, Kellett, Youngson, Hathaway, Santana (2019): Trends in psychiatric disorders prevalence and prescription patterns of children in Alberta, Canada. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019 May 25. doi: 10.1007/s00127-019-01714-w.

  26. Morkem, Handelman, Queenan, Birtwhistle, Barber (2020): Validation of an EMR algorithm to measure the prevalence of ADHD in the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN). BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2020 Jul 20;20(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12911-020-01182-2. PMID: 32690025; PMCID: PMC7370518.

  27. Pineda, Lopera, Palacio, Ramirez, Henao (2003): Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample. Int J Neurosci. 2003 Jan;113(1):49-71.

  28. Wang, Liu, Li, Xu, Liu, Shi, Chen (2017): Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 19;17(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-1187-9. n = 275.502

  29. Nakamura, Ohnishi, Uchiyama (2013): Epidemiological survey of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japan, Jpn J Psychiatr Treat, 2013. Zitiert nach Takahashi Miyatake, Kurato, Takahashi (2016): Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or autism spectrum disorder and its relation to lifestyle in female college students. Environ Health Prev Med. 2016 Nov;21(6):455-459.

  30. Takahashi Miyatake, Kurato, Takahashi (2016): Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or autism spectrum disorder and its relation to lifestyle in female college students. Environ Health Prev Med. 2016 Nov;21(6):455-459. n = 375

  31. Tateno, Teo, Shirasaka, Tayama, Watabe, Kato (2016): Internet addiction and self-evaluated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits among Japanese college students. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016 Dec;70(12):567-572. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12454. n = 403

  32. Soma, Nakamura, Oyama, Tsuchiya, Yamamoto (2009): Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in preschool children: discrepancy between parent and teacher evaluations. Environ Health Prev Med. 2009 Mar;14(2):150-4. doi: 10.1007/s12199-008-0075-4.

  33. Kanbayashi, Nakata, Fujii, Kita, Wada (1994): ADHD-related behavior among non-referred children: parents’ ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1994 Fall;25(1):13-29.

  34. Huang, Wang, Ho (2019): Trends in incidence rates of diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 12 years in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study. Psychiatry Res. 2020 Jan 14;284:112792. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112792. PMID: 31981938. n = 265.932 Patienten

  35. India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Mental Disorders Collaborators (2019): The burden of mental disorders across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2017. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 20. pii: S2215-0366(19)30475-4. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30475-4.

  36. H)S bei Kindern von 6,3 %. Die Mehrheit (69,3 %) der AD(H)S-positiven Kinder lebte in einer Familie und gehörte der unteren / unteren Mittelschicht an. Die Studie berichtet, dass keine Fälle von AD(H)S in der Familie vorgefunden worden seien.((Sharma, Gupta, Banal, Majeed, Kumari, Langer, Akhter, Gupta, Raina (2020): Prevalence and correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) risk factors among school children in a rural area of North India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020 Jan 28;9(1):115-118. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_587_19. PMID: 32110575; PMCID: PMC7014897. n = 205

  37. Mulu, Mohammed, Kebede, Atinafu, Tarekegn, Teshome, Tadese, Wubetu (2022): Prevalence and Associated Factors of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 6-17 Years in North Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2022 Mar;32(2):321-330. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v32i2.13. PMID: 35693560; PMCID: PMC9175227.

  38. Lola, Belete, Gebeyehu, Zerihun, Yimer, Leta (2019): Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Children Aged 6 to 17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Rural Ethiopia. Behav Neurol. 2019 Apr 14;2019:1753580. doi: 10.1155/2019/1753580. eCollection 2019.

  39. Kusi-Mensah, Donnir, Wemakor, Owusu-Antwi, Omigbodun (2019): Prevalence and patterns of mental disorders among primary school age children in Ghana: correlates with academic achievement. J Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2019 Dec;31(3):214-223. doi: 10.2989/17280583.2019.1678477. n = 303

  40. Mohammadi, Zarafshan, Khaleghi, Ahmadi, Hooshyari, Mostafavi, Ahmadi, Alavi, Shakiba, Salmanian (2019): Prevalence of ADHD and Its Comorbidities in a Population-Based Sample. J Atten Disord. 2019 Dec 13:1087054719886372. doi: 10.1177/1087054719886372. n = 30.532

  41. Alghamdi, Alzaben, Alhashemi, Shaaban, Fairaq, Alsuliamani, Mahin, Ghurab, Sehlo, Koenig (2022): Prevalence and Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among College Students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Med Med Sci. 2022 May-Aug;10(2):131-138. doi: 10.4103/sjmms.sjmms_654_21. PMID: 35602395; PMCID: PMC9121697.

  42. Cénat, Kokou-Kpolou, Blais-Rochette, Morse, Vandette, Dalexis, Darius, Noorishad, Labelle, Kogan (2022): Prevalence of ADHD among Black Youth Compared to White, Latino and Asian Youth: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2022 Apr 15:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2022.2051524. PMID: 35427201. METASTUDIE

  43. Chung, Jiang, Paksarian, Nikolaidis, Castellanos, Merikangas, Milham (2019): Trends in the Prevalence and Incidence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Adults and Children of Different Racial and Ethnic Groups. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Nov 1;2(11):e1914344. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14344. n = 5,2 Mio Patienten, n = 59.371 AD(H)S-Betroffene


  45. Fischer, Krause (2019): “Wir waren alle mal schwarz”, Interview,. Süddeutsche Zeitung, 23./24.11.29019, Seite 33

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