Dear readers of ADxS.org, please forgive the disruption.

ADxS.org needs about $12450 in 2022. In 2022 we received donations from third parties of $7671 until 08/31. Unfortunately, 99.7% of our readers do not donate. If everyone who reads this request makes a small contribution, our fundraising campaign for 2022 would be over after a few days. This donation request is displayed 4,000 times a week, but only 19 people donate. If you find ADxS.org useful, please take a minute and support ADxS.org with your donation. Thank you!

Since 01.06.2021 ADxS.org is supported by the non-profit ADxS e.V..

$7671 of $12450 - as of 2022-09-02
61%
Header Image
Psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD

Psychiatric comorbidities in ADHD

The following psychiatric disorders frequently occur additionally (comorbidly) in ADHD sufferers, sorted in descending order of frequency in ADHD (in % of ADHD sufferers) versus frequency in non-affected persons.

Adults with the highest 10% of ADHD symptom expression according to ADHD-E were 6.99 times more likely to experience distress from psychological complaints than those not affected.1

The percentages in the headings indicate the frequency of comorbidity in ADHD. Example: 70 to 80 % of children with ADHD suffer from sleep disorders, compared to 35 to 40 % of children without ADHD.

1. Sleep disorders

1.1. Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD - 70 to 80 % (vs. 35 to 40 %)

70 - 80%2; 73.3% (28.5% mild plus 44.8% moderate and severe),34 twice as common as in unaffected children56
For the treatment of sleep disorders Sleep Problems in ADHD.

A metastudy found ADHD in about 33% of all narcolepsy sufferers at the same time.7
Narcolepsy is associated with reduced levels of dopamine in the cerebrospinal fluid. This is consistent with the dopamine deficiency present in ADHD. In contrast, dogs with narcolepsy were found to have increased levels of dopamine in the amygdala and increased levels of norepinephrine in the oral pontine reticulum. Nevertheless, the dogs respond to stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine.8

1.2. Sleep disorders in adults with ADHD

  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 11.3 %9 to 29 %10
  • For non-affected persons: 2.3 %9
    = 5 to 12 times the risk
    Nash our experience, the rate of sleep disturbance is significantly higher among adults with ADHD. Of the 670 adult ADHD sufferers (with a medical diagnosis) on the ADxS.org online symptom test, 69% showed sleep problems, compared to 39% of the 159 self-reportedly definitely not affected (as of 03/01/2022).

A metastudy found ADHD in about 33% of all narcolepsy sufferers at the same time.7

2. Motor clumsiness

Source4

2.1. Developmental motor coordination disorder - 47 %

This occurs in 47% of ADHD sufferers.11

2.2. Gross Motor Skills

Frequent accidents, bumping, bruising. See also under symptoms of ADHD.

2.3. Impaired fine motor skills, poor handwriting - 60%

Up to 60% of ADHD sufferers have impaired fine motor skills, such as poor handwriting.12

3. Affective disorders (depression / dysphoria / dysthymia / mania) - 37 to 61 % (vs. 4.7 to 8.9 %)

Dysphoria with inactivity is an original ADHD symptom and not a symptom of depression. Antidepressant treatment of dysphoria with inactivity would be malpractice.
Depression and dysphoria in ADHD

Depression was found in 42.28% (males: 35.60%; females: 40.27%) of adult ADHD sufferers compared to 4.69% (males: 3.55%; females: 5.87%) of non-sufferers, according to a large Swedish cohort study.13

  • In ADHD affected children: 37 %1415
  • For unaffected children: 8.9%15 to 14% 14
    = 4 times the risk
  • Mood swings (15 - 75 %)16
  • Depressive disorders4
  • A simple survey from www.adhs-chaoten.net, in which 73 sufferers took part, revealed that a majority suffer from seasonal autumn-winter depression.17 This is quite regularly the result of a vitamin D3 deficiency.
    Vitamin D3
  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 61.8%9;
    Depression (40% to 60%)18; 25%10
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) (32%)19
  • Depression (adults with ADHD total: 21.4%; females 32.1%, males 19.8%; ADHD-I 22.3%, ADHD-C 17.6%, ADHD-HI 32.5%)20
  • Dysthymia (adults with ADHD total: 7.3%; females 9.4%, males 5.4%; ADHD-I 6.3%, ADHD-C 7.6%, ADHD-HI 15%)20
  • Bipolar disorder (“manic/depressive”): 6%10; (Adults with ADHD total: 6.4%; women 8.3%, men 4.7%; ADHD-I 5.1%, ADHD-C 8.0%, ADHD-HI 10.0%)20
  • In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 92.2%21
  • Adults with the highest 10% of ADHD symptom expression according to ADHD-E are 6.68 times more likely to experience burden of depression than unaffected individuals.1
  • For non-affected persons: 14.3 %9
    Major depression (6%)19
    = 4 to 5 times the risk
    In adult ADHD sufferers with the highest 10% of ADHD symptom expression according to ADHD-E: 6.68 times the risk22

4. Aggressive behavior - over 50

A little more than 5023

Aggressive behavior is not an original symptom of ADHD-HI. Aggressiveness can be an expression of stress, but not everyone reacts to stress with aggressiveness, nor does everyone tend to externalize stress.
Arguments in favor of pure comorbidity include the fact that ADHD-unspecific medications such as risperidone only reduce aggression, not ADHD symptoms, whereas MPH (methylphenidate) can equally alleviate symptoms of ADHD and ODD.24

See also Neurophysiological correlates of aggression

5. Severe behavioral disorder - 30 to 50

Frequency of comorbidity in children with ADHD:

  • 50 %25
  • 31% in Iran among children aged 6-18.26
  • Among ADHD sufferers, 30 to 50% have comorbid ODD or CD.27

5.1. Deficient emotional self regulation (DESR) - 44 to 55 %

DESR is described as

  1. Self-regulation deficits of a physiological arousal induced by strong emotions
  2. Difficulty inhibiting inappropriate behavior in response to positive or negative emotions
  3. Problems in refocusing attention when emotions are strong
  4. Disorganization of behavioral coordination in response to emotional activation
  • DESR is distinct from the persistent and severe aggressive irritability common in pediatric bipolar disorder.28 The abnormal moods of bipolar disorder are not based on poor self-control and include other mood criteria according to DSM-IV.
    DESR is not associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorder.22
    In studies, 44%22 to 55%29 of ADHD sufferers were found to have DESR, compared to only 2% of non-affected individuals.22
    DESR is diagnosed when individuals scored between 180 and 210 on the 3 scales of anxiety/depression (intense emotions), aggression, and attention (impulsivity) of the Child Behavioural Check List (CBCL) (an average of between 60 and 70 per scale). Scores above 210 are no longer referred to as DESR but as more severe forms of affective disorders (disorders of mood and behavioral dysregulation). By the defined diagnostic criteria of DESR, which cannot be achieved without a high score on the aggression scale, the diagnosis of DESR is likely to be limited to the ADHD-HI subtype, which is phenotypically more likely to respond to perceived stress with aggression.
    The CBCL aggressive behavior scale scores:30
    1. Argues or disagrees a lot
    2. Specifies, cuts to
    3. Is crude or mean to others, intimidates them
    4. Requires much attention
    5. Breaks his own things
    6. Breaks things that belong to parents, siblings or others
    7. Does not obey at home
    8. Disobeys at school
    9. Is easily jealous
    10. Device easily gets into scuffles, altercations
    11. Physically attacks others
    12. Screams a lot
    13. Likes to produce or clown around
    14. Is stubborn, grumpy or irritable, gets easily annoyed by others
    15. Shows sudden changes in mood and emotion
    16. Talks too much
    17. Likes to tease others
    18. Has outbursts of anger or a hot temper
    19. Threatens and bullies others or intimidates them
    20. Is unusually loud

According to our assessment, all question topics primarily target the subtype ADHD-HI (with hyperactivity), whereas only question topics 7, 8, 9, 14 and 15 also fit the subtype ADHD-I, but do not target (its) possible symptoms of an inwardly directed emotional intensity. In the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), externalizing symptoms such as aggression or oppositional defiant behavior hardly occur.31 In our understanding, the ADHD-I subtype internalizes perceived stress and does not react primarily aggressively.

DESR can thus only occur in ADHD-HI and ADHD-C sufferers, not in ADHD-I.
We assume that ADHD-I patients also suffer from emotional dysregulation, which just does not or rarely express itself as aggression. This perception was confirmed by an ADHD therapist in a personal interview.

Consequently, significantly more than 44 to 55% of all ADHD sufferers are likely to suffer from emotional dysregulation, although the forms of expression can vary widely.
Here, too, studies would be desirable that take into account the subtypes and the phenotypic modes of expression of intense emotions (ADHD-HI: externalizing / ADHD-I: internalizing) for each of these.

5.2. Social Behavior Disorder / Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) / Conduct Disorder (CD) - 26 to 39% (vs. 3.9%)

Source4

  • For ADHD affected children: 39.3%29; explicitly for ODD: (35%)16
  • ODD 26.1% in Iran among children aged 6-18 years.26
  • For non-affected persons: 3.9 %9
    = 10 times the risk
  • Affected persons with a social behavior disorder have 21 times the risk (compared to non-affected persons) of simultaneously suffering from ADHD.32
  • ODD refers primarily to ADHD-HI (with hyperactivity) rather than ADHD-I sufferers (without hyperactivity) because hyperactivity is an outgrowth of an externalizing stress response pattern, whereas ADHD-I is an outgrowth of an inwardly directed stress (playing dead, fleeing). The subtypes of ADHD: ADHD-HI, ADHD-I, SCT and others
  • Social behavior disorders and aggression disorders have their own genetic disposition in a specific polymorphism of the MAO-A gene. How ADHD develops: genes or genes + environment
  • ODD (Oppositonal Defiant Disorder) we understand as a pure comorbidity to ADHD.
    Steinhausen describes social behavior disorders on the one hand as the most common comorbidity of ADHD,33 on the other hand describes the comorbidity as a subtype of ADHD on page 174
    • Apart from the fact that sleep disorders are likely to be significantly more common, we do not consider ODD as a subtype because of the delineability of the genetic basis.
      For social behavior disorders as well as ADHD, a specific polymorphism of the MAO-A gene is mentioned as a genetic contributor (as one of several interacting specific genes). With regard to disorders of social behavior, however, this gene polymorphism seems to play a much greater role, since it is mentioned there much more frequently and ADHD can manifest itself even without an involvement of this gene (through interaction of other genes). In ADHD, the MAO-A gene is always mentioned in a subset of affected individuals who also suffer from behavioral disorders.
      Further arguing for pure comorbidity is that ADHD-unspecific medications such as risperidone only reduce aggression, not ADHD symptoms, whereas MPH (methylphenidate) can equally alleviate symptoms of ADHD and ODD.24
  • ODD does not correlate with any of the symptom circuits of the dual / triple pathway model, so has a different neurological basis, at least to that extent.34

More recent definitional models of externalizing aggressive disorder patterns include

  • Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)35 and
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED)27

The prevalence of conduct disorder was reported by an Iranian study36

  • For children aged 6-9 years at 0.58
  • Among adolescents aged 10-14 years with 0.57
  • For adolescents aged 15-18, at 1.22

noted.
32% met the criteria of ADHD at the same time, 55% met the criteria of ODD.

6. Substance abuse and addiction

6.1. Substance-related addictions / substance abuse

6.1.1. Substance abuse - not elevated to 35% (vs. 3.6%)

Substance abuse (SUD) was found in 35.12% (males: 39.44%; females: 30.88%) of adult ADHD sufferers versus 3.61% (males: 4.40%; females: 2.79%) of non-sufferers, according to a large Swedish cohort study.13
A large Norwegian cohort study found no association between ADHD and alcohol or drug abuse,37 as did an earlier study,38 which found increased alcohol and drug abuse in ADHD sufferers only in the presence of additional externalizing disorders.
Substance abuse is a common comorbidity of ADHD.4

  • In ADHD sufferers, substance abuse begins on average 3 years earlier39
  • Appropriate medication (especially methylphenidate) reduces the likelihood of addiction or substance abuse in ADHD.
  • ADHD sufferers with comorbid cocaine addiction showed significant reductions in addictive behaviors when treated with stimulants, corresponding to reductions in ADHD symptoms.40

6.1.2. Smoking - 40% (vs. 30%)

  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 40%41 to 42%4243 versus 26% unaffected (2005),44 thus a 61% increased risk (regardless of medication).
  • Among adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD, 51% are nicotine dependent.21
  • In the case of non-affected persons:
    27% of women and 32% of men in the total population aged 18 and over45
    = 1.6 times the risk
    Adults with ADHD-HI: plus 100 % compared to non-affected persons46
  • ADHD medications, nicotine (smoking), and zinc block the dopamine transporters (DAT) (elevated in ADHD), reducing their overactivity47

6.1.3. Alcohol dependence

  • In adult ADHD sufferers, between 30%19, 25% to 44%46
    where we suspect that these data refer to inpatient psychiatric patients with ADHD.
  • A large Norwegian cohort study found no association between ADHD and alcohol or drug abuse,37 as did an earlier study,38 which found increased alcohol and drug abuse in ADHD sufferers only in the presence of additional externalizing disorders.
  • Among adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD, one study found alcohol dependence in 4.1%.21
  • For non-affected persons: 519
    = 6 to 8 times the risk
    Conversely, among n = 153 alcoholics, 43% were found to have ADHD in childhood and 22% were found to have persistent ADHD.48 Another study found an ADHD diagnosis in 19% among 100 adult alcoholics in India.49
  • Alcohol / substance abuse: adults with ADHD total: 1.6%; females 1.1%, males 2.0%; ADHD-I 0.9%, ADHD-C 2.5%, ADHD-HI 2.5%20

6.1.4. Substance-related addictions in general - 7.8 %

  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 7.8%9, 20%19 to 50 to 60%5051
  • For non-affected: 1.9 %9 to 5 %1951
    = 4 to 12 times the risk
  • According to another source, the lifetime prevalence of psychoactive substance use is 52% in ADHD and 24% in non-ADHD patients.52

6.1.5. Drugs

  • Among adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD, 7.1% have comorbid drug dependence.21
  • Drug addicts are 4 to 5 times more likely to have ADHD53
  • 15.5%54 to 25% of all addicts have ADHD55
  • ADHD was found in 11.2% of all adult addiction patients who used intravenous opioids or intravenous/intranasal benzodiazepines. The ADHD rate was higher in women (15.3%) than in men (10.3%).56
  • In ADHD, the risk of substance dependence (addiction) is 2 to 3 times higher than in non-affected individuals.57
  • ADHD is up to 9 times more likely to develop nicotine dependence than non-affected individuals.57
  • ADHD sufferers are about as likely to be addicted as relatives not affected by ADHD
    • Cannabis: 67 vs. 7251
    • Cocaine: 23 vs. 2151
    • Stimulants: 18 vs. 10 %51
    • Hallucinogens: 18 vs. 7 %51
    • Opioids: 16 vs. 351
    • Sedatives: 14 vs. 1051
  • Cocaine users had ADHD in childhood at a rate of 12% and 10% still had it as adults, according to one study.58

6.2. Behavioral addiction / gambling 5.3% (vs. 2.4%)

ADHD sufferers have a more than doubled risk of developing a gambling addiction (5.3% compared to 2.4%). Problem gambling behavior is 4 times more frequent among ADHD sufferers (2.4%) than among non-affected persons (0.6%).59

One study found that gene variants that correlate with substance use may causally increase ADHD risk.60

7. Restless Legs (RLS, akathisia) - 20 to 44 % (vs. 2 to 8 %)

A study of ADHD-affected children (6 to 16 years) found RLS in 33.3%.61 Other sources speak of 44%.62 A smaller study of adults with ADHD found RLS in 20%, with comorbid RLS complicating ADHD symptoms.63
One study found 10% of ADHD sufferers had a disorder of periodic limb movements (more than 5/hour).64 Another study found 66% of all children with ADHD had a PLM index greater than 5/hour, which is a marker for RLS, while no ADHD non-affected person had an elevated PLM index.65
Among adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD, 25.5% showed RLS.21
A large cohort study found a strong correlation of restless legs and ADHD.66

ADHD is found in up to 26% of RLS sufferers.62

Independent of ADHD, RLS occurs in about 2% of all children and adolescents, and in 0.5 to 1% in a moderate to severe form. In adults, it affects 5 to 10%. In 25% of those affected, the disorder begins between the ages of 10 and 20.67 Other sources cite a prevalence for RLS of up to 8%.68
In 70% of those affected, one parent is also affected

A genetic link between RLS and ADHD has not yet been established. An involvement of the BTBD9 gene, which is related to iron stores, would be conceivable.
69.4% of children and adolescents with RLS have sleep disorders (vs. 39.6% of unaffected), 80.6% have a history of “growing pains” (vs. 63.2% of unaffected).68

Common causes of RLS and ADHD

7.1. iron deficiency in RLS and ADHD

There is increasing evidence that iron deficiency (S-ferritin level < 12 ng/ml) underlies common pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with RLS and patients with ADHD-HI.68
Iron is a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme essential for dopamine synthesis. ADHD and RLS both frequently show decreased iron levels. Lower S-ferritin levels in ADHD sufferers correlate with more severe ADHD-HI symptoms. Children with ADHD and RLS showed lower ferritin levels than children with ADHD without RLS.697071 However, other studies did not find decreased S-ferritin levels in ADHD. 7273
In RLS, severity correlates more clearly with decreased S-ferritin levels.7475 especially in children.76 It is possible that impaired transport of iron from the serum to the cerebrospinal fluid and of iron to the dopaminergic cells results in decreased cerebral iron levels.77 Adults with RLS show low cerebral iron status.78
Children with ADHD and a predisposition to RLS appear to represent a subgroup at particular risk for severe ADHD-HI symptoms, and iron deficiency may contribute to ADHD symptom severity.69
An RC study found improved ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD and low ferritin levels when iron (80 mg/day) was administered.79

7.2. adenosine in RLS and ADHD

Restless legs could result from downregulation of adenosine A1 receptors as a consequence of iron deficiency.80
Adenosine is closely associated with dopamine. Adenosine receptors are found throughout the brain near dopamine receptors and sometimes form receptor heteromers with them. Adenosine may also be involved in ADHD, although more likely via an exaggerated adenosine action at adenosine A2A receptors. Adenosine inhibits dopamine, adenosine antagonists such as caffeine (coffee, cola, black tea) and theobromine (cocoa) thus increase dopamine.
More about this in the article =&amp;gt Adenosine.

7.3. treatment of RLS in ADHD

The problem with the comorbidity of restless legs and ADHD is that ADHD medications (although also dopaminergic) do not work against RLS, and RLS medications such as L-dopa (although also dopaminergic) do not work against ADHD.816882
Prolonged treatment with L-dopa often leads to worsening of RLS symptoms.
It is possible that concomitant administration of L-dopa and stimulants may trigger increased side effects.

A single case report documented a good response of a 6-year-old boy with ADHD and RLS, who was also an MPH nonresponder, to the dopamine agonist ropinirole, in terms of ADHD as well as RLS.83

8. Developmental disorder - 24.7

Developmental disability (adults with ADHD total: 24.7%; females 25.6%, males 23.8%; ADHD-I 22.6%, ADHD-C 25.6%, ADHD-HI 37.5%)20

8.1. Specific developmental disorders - 37.4% (vs. 13.4%)

  • In ADHD-affected children: 37.4 %9
  • For non-affected persons: 13.4 %9
    = 3 times the risk

8.2. Specific developmental disorders of school skills - 23 % (vs. 2.8 %)

  • In ADHD-affected children: 23.0%9
  • For non-affected persons: 2.8 %9
    = 8 times the risk

9. Anxiety disorders

9.1. Anxiety disorders in children - 25 to 38% (vs. 10%)

  • 37.9% in Iran among children aged 6 to 18.26
  • 25 %8416 , 34 %11, without % specification85
  • For non-affected persons around 1086
    = 3 times the risk
  • Anxiety disorders and ADHD seem to reinforce each other. Treatment of anxiety or AD(HS also reduces symptoms of the other disorder.87
  • Generalized anxiety disorder tripled the risk of ADHD, whereas ADHD quadrupled the risk of generalized anxiety disorder.88

9.2. Adult anxiety disorders - 44% (vs. 4.9%)

An anxiety disorder was found in 44.65% (males: 37.02; females: 55.74%) of adult ADHD sufferers compared to 4.89% (males: 3.64%; females: 6.19%) of non-sufferers, according to a large Swedish cohort study.13
Other sources cite a prevalence of 42% and 20-60%, respectively, in adults with ADHD18; 19% anxiety disorders and 15.5% phobic disorders10

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 25%84 to 28.6%21

Anxiety disorders and ADHD seem to reinforce each other. Treatment of anxiety or AD(HS also reduces symptoms of the other disorder.87

9.2.1. Generalized anxiety disorder - 5.9 to 25 % (vs. 2 %)

  • In adult ADHD sufferers
    • Adults with ADHD total: 5.9%; females 7.6%, males 4.4%; ADHD-I 7.1%, ADHD-C 3.5%, ADHD-HI 7.5%20
    • 25 %19
  • For non-affected persons: 219
    = 3 to 12 times the risk

9.2.2. Social phobia - 3.5

Adults with ADHD total: 3.5%; females 2.5%, males 4.4%; ADHD-I 3.3%, ADHD-C 3.0%, ADHD-HI 7.5%20

9.2.3. Panic disorder - 1.9

Adults with ADHD total: 1.9%; females 2.9%, males 2.4%; ADHD-I 2.1%, ADHD-C 2.5%, ADHD-HI 7.5%20

10. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) - 21 %

One metastudy reported that autism spectrum disorders were found in 15% to 21% of children and adolescents with ADHD, and that ADHD-affected children with ASD showed more severe ADHD symptoms than children without ASD.8990
Similarly, 21.6% of autism spectrum disorder sufferers were found to have comorbid ADHD.91 Another source cites 85% comorbid ADHD in ASD sufferers.90
Girls with autism who also had ADHD showed significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD, learning disabilities, and ODD than boys with ASD and ADHD in a large study.92
Other sources do not give % figures.493
Source94
DSM-IV still stipulated that ADHD and autism spectrum disorders should not be diagnosed comorbidly. This was changed in DSM 5.

ADHD and ASD share two genes known as risk genes.93 There are considerations that ADHD and autism may have further common genetic roots.95 Among others, disorders of dopaminergic neurotransmission are suspected in ASD,96 whereas such are documented in ADHD.

About 50% of those affected by autism have ADHD as a comorbidity.
The fact that according to DSM IV ADHD was not allowed to be diagnosed in autism speaks against empirical experience and is therefore omitted in DSM 5.94
There is evidence that ADHD and autism have common genetic roots.95 Among other things, disorders of dopaminergic neurotransmission are suspected in ASD,97 whereas such disorders are documented in ADHD.

11. Adjustment disorders - 18.9 % (vs. 3 %)

Adjustment disorders are described as reactions to a unique or persistent stressful life event.
Types of adjustment disorders are:

  • Brief depressive reaction
  • Prolonged depressive response (up to 2 years)
  • Anxiety and depressive reaction mixed
  • With predominant impairment of other feelings
  • With predominant disorder of social behavior
  • With mixed disorder of emotions and social behavior
  • With other predominantly mentioned symptoms

Prevalence in the presence of ADHD:

  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 18.9%9
  • For non-affected persons: 3.0 %9
    = 6 times the risk

12. Learning Disabilities

12.1. Learning disorders in children - 10 to 92

10 - 92 %16/ general learning disability (approx. 20 %)984

12.2. Adult learning disorder - 2% (vs. 1.6%)

Total adults 1.6%; females 1.4%, males 2.4%; ADHD-I 1.5%, ADHD-C 2.5%, ADHD-HI 2.5%20

13. Partial performance disorders

Source4

One study found learning-specific partial performance disorders in 6.6% of children between the ages of 7 and 11. Reading disability was found in 4%, dyscalculia in 3.6%, and weakness in written expression in 1.8%. Approximately 63% of children with learning-specific partial performance disorders had one or more comorbid diagnoses, with ADHD being the most common comorbidity at 54.9%. Boys were more frequently affected.99

13.1. Reading disability (dyslexia, dyslexia) - 8 to 40%

8 - 39 %((Rothenberger, Lauth, Ramacher-Faasen, Braun, Bock, von Aster, von Aster in Learning and Learning Disorders (2014), 3, pp. 185-202. DOI: 10.1024/2235-0977/a000071:
Comments Off on Romanos & Jans (2014). ADHD-HI - at the nexus of medicine and education. Learning and Learning Disorders, 3, 117 - 132; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/2235-0977/a000071)), 25 - 40%28, 40%11

There is evidence that reading impairment in ADHD shows different connectivity in the brain than reading impairment without ADHD.100
One study found only weak evidence of concordant neurophysiological changes in ADHD and dyslexia.101

65 to 70% of all children with dyslexia are reported to have functional binocular disorders:102

  • Oculomotor dysfunctions (OMD) (9 %)
    • Fixation impaired
    • Consequential movements impaired
    • Horizontal gaze saccades impaired
  • Dysfunctional binocular vision (DBS) (16 %)
    • Heterophoria
    • Suppression
    • Convergence insufficiency
    • Accommodative dysfunction
    • Fusion insufficiency
    • Stereopsis insufficient
  • DBS and OMD (51 %)
  • Neither DMS nor OMD (24 %)

13.2. Spelling disability (agraphia, dysgraphia) - 12 to 40%

12 - 27 %98, 25 - 40 %28, 40 %11
Also in adults with ADHD.103

13.3. Dyscalculia (dyscalculia) 12 - 27 %

12 - 27 %98
A meta-analysis found that reading problems correlate more strongly with math problems than with ADHD.104
Also in adults with ADHD.103

13.4. Face recognition weakness (prosopagnosia)

Source105

13.5. Name recall weakness

Source105

13.6. Speech disorders

Source4

14. Mental disability - 13

13 %11

15. Bipolar disorders - 5 to 14.3 % (vs. 0.7 %)

Bipolar disorder was found in 14.29% (males: 9.95%; females: 18.95%) of adult ADHD sufferers versus 0.72% (males: 0.53%; females 0.91%) of non-sufferers, according to a large Swedish cohort study.13
Among adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD, another study found a prevalence of 5.121

Of 703 adult bipolar sufferers, about 25% had comorbid ADHD, with men and BP type I more likely to have ADHD comorbidity.106 The likelihood of ADHD was found by another study to be increased 3.06-fold in bipolar sufferers 107
One study found evidence of overlap in the genetic causes of bipolar and ADHD, particularly in early-onset bipolar (under age 21),108 another study also found genetic overlap of bipolar and ADHD.109
In 2.4 million individuals studied, 9250 bipolar disorders were observed. If an ADHD disorder was previously present, the risk of bipolar disorder increased 12-fold over the lifetime; if an ADHD and an anxiety disorder were previously present, the risk increased 30-fold compared to individuals without ADHD and without an anxiety disorder.110

16. Eating Disorders - Loss of Control Eating Syndrome (LOC-ES) - 7.5%

12-fold increased risk in ADHD-HI sufferers.111112

A cohort study of Iranian children and adolescents found an increased prevalence of ADHD among eating disorder sufferers at 7.5%.113

Appetite disorders in adults with ADHD: 21 %

17. Personality disorders (in adults)

Personality disorders are generally not yet diagnosed in children.

  • In adult ADHD sufferers: 33.2 %9
  • For non-affected persons: 0.6 %9
    = 50 times the risk
    It is not known to us whether they relate these data to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.1. Antisocial PS - 18 % (vs. 2 %)

One study found antisocial personality disorder in 18% of ADHD-HI sufferers with hyperactivity compared with 2% of nonaffected individuals.114.
Other sources cite 37.1%11530 , although we do not know whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

Of 30 ADHD-HI-affected prison inmates, 96% also had antisocial personality disorder.
In contrast, 20 non-prison ADHD-HI sufferers and 18 non-prisoners (without ADHD) were not found to have antisocial personality disorder.Interestingly, amphetamines are the drugs most commonly used by prison inmates affected by ADHD-HI.45 Amphetamines are known to be a highly effective drug for ADHD.

Among domestic violence offenders who had ADHD, ADHD treatment reduced domestic violence far more significantly than did domestic violence interventions.116

17.2. Borderline PS / Emotionally unstable PS

35,7 %11530
It is not known to us whether they relate these data to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 30.6%21

For differential ADHD / borderline diagnostics, see Emotionally unstable personality / Borderline In the article Differential diagnostics for ADHD in the chapter Diagnostics.

17.3. Anxious PS

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 31.6%21
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.4. Self insecure PS

27,1 %11530
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.5. Compulsive PS

40,7 %11530
It is not known to us whether they relate these data to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 10.2%21

17.6. Combined PS

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 25.5%21

17.7. Paranoid PS

20,0 %11530
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.8. Dependent PS

15,7 %11530
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 18.4%21

17.9. Narcissistic PS

15,7 %11530
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.10. Histrionic PS

14,3 %11530
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

17.11. Schizotypal PS

8,6 %30
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

Earlier names: Borderline schizophrenia, latent schizophrenic reaction, pseudoneurotic schizophrenia

17.12. Schizoid PS

6,4 %30
It is not known to us whether these data refer to ADHD sufferers in general or to ADHD sufferers who are inpatients in a clinic. According to our impression, the latter might be more appropriate.

18. Behavioral / social disorders (aggression, antisocial behavior, oppositional defiant behavior) - 3.5%

Conduct Disorder (CD): Adults with ADHD total: 1.2%; females 0.7%, males 1.7%; ADHD-I 0.3%, ADHD-C 1.0%, ADHD-HI 10.0%20

Oppositional Defiant Behavior (ODD): adults with ADHD total: 0.7%; females 0.0%, males 1.7%; ADHD-I 0.0%, ADHD-C 1.5%, ADHD-HI 5.0%20

Decreased cortisol levels have been reported in ADHD in association with aggression disorders.117
Externalizing stress responses are associated with decreased basal cortisol levels and a decreased cortisol response to acute stress.
Disturbances in stress hormone levels, especially cortisol, are extremely common in ADHD.
Cortisol in ADHD

19. Impulse control disorder, impulse control disorder - 2.6%

Total adults 2.6%; females 2.9%, males 3.7%; ADHD-I 1.2%, ADHD-C 5.0%, ADHD-HI 12.5%20

20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder - 1.9

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is found to be more comorbid in adults with ADHD.4
Adults with ADHD total: 1.9%; females 1.4%, males 2.4%; ADHD-I 0.9%, ADHD-C 1.5%, ADHD-HI 12.5%20
In family members of OCD sufferers, a large study found a 2.19-fold increase in ADHD prevalence.118

21. Intellectual disability - 1.4%

Total adults 1.4%; females 1.8%, males 1.0%; ADHD-I 1.2%, ADHD-C 1.0%, ADHD-HI 5.0%20

22. Tic Disorders

Source94

23. Migraine

Source94

24. Obesity

2.1-fold risk for ADHD sufferers.119

ne study found that gene variants correlated with obesity may causally increase ADHD risk.60
For treatment options, see below under 4.5.

25. Socialization disorder

Source4

26. Sexual development disorder

Source4

  • Earlier onset of sexual activity
    • For ADHD affected children: 15 years120
    • For non-affected persons: 16 years120
  • More sex partners
    • For ADHD sufferers: 18.6120
    • For non-affected persons: 6.5120
  • Less time with a partner120
  • Higher rate of contraception120
  • High rate of unwanted pregnancies
    • In ADHD-affected children: 38 %120
    • For non-affected persons: 4120
      = 19.5 times the risk
  • Teenage pregnancies 5.5 times121
    • Teenage pregnancies of mothers with ADHD: 15.3%
    • Teenage pregnancies of mothers without ADHD: 2.8%
  • Birth rate increased (42:1)120
    = 42 times the risk
  • Higher risk of sexually transmitted diseases
    • For ADHD sufferers: 16 %120
    • For non-affected persons: 4120
      = 4 times the risk

27. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - 0.7%

Adults with ADHD total: 0.7%; females 0.7%, males 0.7%; ADHD-I 0.9%, ADHD-C 0.0%, ADHD-HI 2.5%20

In adult psychiatric clinical patients with ADHD: 26.5%21

28. Tic Disorders

Source4

29. Epilepsy

One study found 35% of adult epilepsy sufferers also had ADHD.122

In adults with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), ADHD was found in 63.6%, whereas in adults with epileptic seizures (ES), ADHD was found in 27.8%.123

30. Narcolepsy

A metastudy found ADHD in about 33% of all narcolepsy sufferers at the same time.7

31. Messi Syndrome / Hoarding

Messi syndrome is manifested by a strong urge to collect useless objects with a tendency to litter the living environment. A strong coincidence with ADHD is discussed. Review of literature in Kuwano et al.124 These found a comorbidity of ADHD in Messi sufferers of 26.7%.

32. Attachment Disorders

Source4

One study found that gene variants correlating to increased social interaction were protective factors against ADHD.60

33. Enuresis (enuresis)

Source4
Enuresis in children increased the risk of comorbid ADHD by 2.15-fold (OR 3.15).125

34. Encopresis (defecation)

Source4

35. Epilepsy

Source4

36. Suicidality

A metastudy of 57 studies found a correlation between ADHD and126

  • Suicide attempts (OR 2.37)
  • Suicidal ideation (OR 3.53)
  • Suicide plans (OR 4.54)
  • Suicide (OR 6.69).

According to the study, suicide is between 2.37 and 6.69 times more common in ADHD than in non-affected individuals.

Another study found increased suicidality in children and adolescents with ADHD (OR 1.1), but this was mediated by comorbid depression, irritability, and anxiety, not ADHD itself.127

37. Fibromyalgia

One study found a fourfold incidence of ADHD in fibromyalgia sufferers, without quantifying the incidence of fibromyalgia in ADHD sufferers.128

38. Mental disorders in relatives of ADHD sufferers

An analysis of the entire Taiwanese population in 2010 examined 220,966 parents of children with ADHD-HI (according to ICD-9, which did not know ADHD-I), 174,460 siblings of children with ADHD-HI, and 5,875 children of parents with ADHD-HI. Among these relatives of ADHD-HI sufferers, the risk of severe psychiatric disorders was significantly increased compared with matched controls without relatives with ADHD-HI:129

  • ADHD-HI: 6.87-fold risk
  • Autism spectrum disorder: 4.14-fold risk
  • Bipolar disorder: 2.21-fold risk
  • Major depressive disorder: 2.08-fold risk
  • Schizophrenia: 1.69-fold risk

This can be understood as an indication of common genetic causes. Rather theoretically, however, it is also conceivable that this could be explained by immunological consequences of (primarily viral) infections (which are transmitted more frequently among close persons). For this, see the chapter Immune system and behavior.
Similarly, similar external life circumstances and similar dysfunctional behavior patterns and stressful experiences are likely to be shared more frequently among close individuals. These mechanisms may complement each other.


  1. Schmidt, Waldmann, Petermann, Brähler (2010): Wie stark sind Erwachsene mit ADHS und komorbiden Störungen in ihrer gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität beeinträchtigt? Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 58, 9–21, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 229

  2. ADHS, iPads, Schlaf und Konzentrationsprobleme: Im Licht neuer Erkenntnisse

  3. Sung, Hiscock, Sciberras, Efron (2008): Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence and the effect on the child and family; Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Apr;162(4):336-42. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.162.4.336. n = 239

  4. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 53, ohne %-Angabe

  5. Kostanecka-Endress, Woerner, Hajak, Rothenberger (2008): Tag und Nacht in Bewegung – Schlafverhalten hypermotorischer Kinder Tourette-Syndrom und hyperkinetisches Syndrom; Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde; December 2000, Volume 148, Issue 12, pp 1113–1128; zitiert nach Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (Herausgeber) (2010): Handbuch ADHS; Grundlagen, Klinik, Therapie und Verlauf der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung, Kohlhammer, Seite 187

  6. Schlüter, Buschatz, Kahlen, Dieffenbach, Trowitzsch (1999): Polysomnographie bei aufmerksamkeitsgestörten und hyperaktiven Kindern (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD); Somnologie – Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin, May 1999, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 140–147

  7. Kim, Lee, Sung, Jung, Pak (2019): Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in narcolepsy: a systematic review. Sleep Med. 2019 Aug 3;65:84-88. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2019.07.022.

  8. Nishino, Sakai (2016): Modulations of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) Dopaminergic Neurons by Hypocretins/Orexins: Implications in Vigilance and Behavioral Control In: Monti, Pandi-Perumal, Chokroverty (Herausgeber) (2016): Dopamine and Sleep: Molecular, Functional, and Clinical Aspects, 65-90, 75

  9. Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009 mit Verweis auf Schlander, Schwarz, Trott, Viapiano, Bonauer (2007): Who cares for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Insights from Nordbaden (Germany) on administrative prevalence and physician involvement in health care provision; N.Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;16(7):430-8.

  10. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, S. 17

  11. Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (Herausgeber) (2010): Handbuch ADHS; Grundlagen, Klinik, Therapie und Verlauf der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung, Kohlhammer, Seite 174

  12. Zentrales ADHS-Netz: Allgemeine Infos zu ADHS; “Welche weiteren komorbiden Probleme gibt es?”

  13. Chen, Hartman, Haavik, Harro, Klungsøyr, Hegvik, Wanders, Ottosen, Dalsgaard, Faraone, Larsson (2018): Common psychiatric and metabolic comorbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 26;13(9):e0204516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204516. PMID: 30256837; PMCID: PMC6157884. n = 5.551.807, 18 bis 64 Jahre

  14. Roy, Oldehinkel, Verhulst; Ormel, Hartman (2014): Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression; J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;75(2):e108-13. doi: 10.4088/JCP.13m08648.; n = 1584

  15. Schlander, Schwarz, Trott, Viapiano, Bonauer (2007): Who cares for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Insights from Nordbaden (Germany) on administrative prevalence and physician involvement in health care provision; N.Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;16(7):430-8., zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  16. Häufigkeit der Komorbidität bei Kindern mit AD(H)S nach Hudziak und Todd, 2001, zitiert aus Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, S. 16

  17. adhs-chaoten; Thread: ADS / ADHS und saisonale Depression / Winterdepression

  18. Philipsen, Heßlinger, Tebartz van Elst: AufmerksamkeitsdefizitHyperaktivitätsstörung im Erwachsenenalter – Diagnostik, Ätiologie und Therapie (ÜBERSICHTSARBEIT), Deutsches Ärzteblatt, Jg. 105, Heft 17, 25. April 2008, Seite 311 – 317, 313 , Seite 313 unter Verweis auf Rösler, Heßlinger, Philipsen (2007): ADHS im Erwachsenenalter. In: Voderholzer, Hohagen (Hrsg.): Therapie psychischer Erkrankungen – State of the Art. 2. Auflage. München: Urban & Fischer, 2007

  19. Faraone, APA 2006: Massachusetts General Hospital Study, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  20. Ohnishi, Kobayashi, Yajima, Koyama, Noguchi (2020): Psychiatric Comorbidities in Adult Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Prevalence and Patterns in the Routine Clinical Setting. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep 1;16(9-10):11-16. PMID: 32082943; PMCID: PMC7009330. n = 575

  21. Miesch, Deister (2018): Die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit- und Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) in der Erwachsenenpsychiatrie: Erfassung der ADHS-12-Monatsprävalenz, der Risikofaktoren und Komorbidität bei ADHS; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatry: Data on 12-month prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-119987. DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-119987, n = 166

  22. Schmidt, S., Waldmann, H.-C., Petermann, F. & Brähler, E. (2010). Wie stark sind Erwachsene mit ADHS und komorbiden Störungen in ihrer gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität beeinträchtigt? Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 58, 9–21, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 229

  23. Shankman, Lewinsohn, Klein, Small, Seeley, Altman (2009): Subthreshold conditions as precursors for full syndrome disorders: A 15-year longitudinal study of multiple diagnostic classes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1485–1494, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 232

  24. Masi, Manfredi, Nieri, Muratori, Pfanner, Milone (2017): A Naturalistic Comparison of Methylphenidate and Risperidone Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbid With Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Aggression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Aug 10. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000747; n = 40

  25. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, mit Verweis auf Hudziak, Todd 2001

  26. Mohammadi, Zarafshan, Khaleghi, Ahmadi, Hooshyari, Mostafavi, Ahmadi, Alavi, Shakiba, Salmanian (2019): Prevalence of ADHD and Its Comorbidities in a Population-Based Sample. J Atten Disord. 2019 Dec 13:1087054719886372. doi: 10.1177/1087054719886372. n = 30.532

  27. Gnanavel, Sharma, Kaushal, Hussain (2019): Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity: A review of literature. World J Clin Cases. 2019 Sep 6;7(17):2420-2426. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i17.2420.

  28. Kain, Landerl, Kaufmann (2008): Komorbidität bei ADHS. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde,156, 757 – 767, zitiert nach Rothenberger, Lauth, Ramacher-Faasen, Braun, Bock, von Aster, von Aster, von Aster in Lernen und Lernstörungen (2014), 3, pp. 185-202. DOI: 10.1024/2235-0977/a000071: Kommentare zu Romanos & Jans (2014). ADHS – an der Nahtstelle von Medizin und Pädagogik. Lernen und Lernstörungen, 3, 117 – 132; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/2235-0977/a000071

  29. Schlander, Schwarz, Trott, Viapiano, Bonauer (2007): Who cares for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Insights from Nordbaden (Germany) on administrative prevalence and physician involvement in health care provision; N.Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;16(7):430-8.

  30. Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  31. Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238

  32. Witthöft, Koglin, Petermann (2010): Zur Komorbidität von aggressivem Verhalten und ADHS. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 19, 218–227, zitiert nach Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze, Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 232

  33. Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (Herausgeber) (2010): Handbuch ADHS; Grundlagen, Klinik, Therapie und Verlauf der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung, Kohlhammer, Seite 173

  34. Sonuga-Barke, Bitsakou, Thompson (2010): Beyond the dual pathway model: Evidence for the dissociation of timing, inhibitory and delay-related impairments in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  35. Sagar-Ouriaghli, Milavic, Barton, Heaney, Fiori, Lievesley, Singh, Santosh (2018): Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;27(9):1095-1104. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-1149-5.

  36. Salmanian, Mohammadi, Hooshyari, Mostafavi, Zarafshan, Khaleghi, Ahmadi, Alavi, Shakiba, Rahgozar, Safavi, Arman, Delpisheh, Mohammadzadeh, Hosseini, Ostovar, Hojjat, Armani, Talepasand, Amiri (2019): Prevalence, comorbidities, and sociodemographic predictors of conduct disorder: the national epidemiology of Iranian children and adolescents psychiatric disorders (IRCAP). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 6. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01448-9.

  37. Heradstveit, Skogen, Hetland, Stewart, Hysing (2019): Psychiatric Diagnoses Differ Considerably in Their Associations With Alcohol/Drug-Related Problems Among Adolescents. A Norwegian Population-Based Survey Linked With National Patient Registry Data. Front Psychol. 2019 May 8;10:1003. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01003. eCollection 2019. n = 9408

  38. August, Winters, Realmuto, Fahnhorst, Botzet, Lee (2006): Prospective study of adolescent drug use among community samples of ADHD and non-ADHD participants. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;45(7):824-32. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000219831.16226.f8. PMID: 16832319.

  39. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 107 f

  40. Manni, Cipollone, Pallucchini, Maremmani, Perugi, Maremmani (2019): Remarkable Reduction of Cocaine Use in Dual Disorder (Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder/Cocaine Use Disorder) Patients Treated with Medications for ADHD. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 15;16(20). pii: E3911. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16203911.

  41. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, S. 88

  42. Pomerleau, Downey, Stelson, Pomerleau (1995): Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Journal of Substance Abuse, Volume 7, Issue 3, 1995, Pages 373-378, ISSN 0899-3289, https://doi.org/10.1016/0899-3289(95)90030-6.

  43. Lambert, Hartsough, (1998): Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Substance Dependencies Among Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(6), 533–544. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221949803100603

  44. Kollins, McClernon, Fuemmeler (2005): Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;62(10):1142-7.

  45. http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/261015/umfrage/praevalenz-des-rauchens-in-deutschland-nach-geschlecht/

  46. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 106

  47. Steinhausen, Rothenberger, Döpfner (2010): Handbuch ADHS, Seite 78

  48. Krause, Biermann, Krause (2002): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Alkoholikern. Nervenheilkunde 21 (2002): 156-159., zitiert nach Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 106

  49. Lohit, Babu, Sharma, Rao, Sachin, Matkar (2019): Prevalence of Adult ADHD Co-morbidity in Alcohol Use Disorders in a General Hospital Setup. Indian J Psychol Med. 2019 Nov 11;41(6):523-528. doi: 10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_464_18. eCollection 2019 Nov-Dec.

  50. Philipsen, Heßlinger, Tebartz van Elst: AufmerksamkeitsdefizitHyperaktivitätsstörung im Erwachsenenalter – Diagnostik, Ätiologie und Therapie (ÜBERSICHTSARBEIT), Deutsches Ärzteblatt, Jg. 105, Heft 17, 25. April 2008, Seite 311 – 317, 313 , Seite 313 unter Verweis auf Rösler, Heßlinger, Philipsen (2007): ADHS im Erwachsenenalter. In: Voderholzer, Hohagen (Hrsg.): Therapie psychischer Erkrankungen – State of the Art. 2. Auflage. München: Urban & Fischer, 2007

  51. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 106 mwNw

  52. Biederman, Wilens, Mick, Milberger, Spencer, Faraone (1995): Psychoactive substance use disorders in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): effects of ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;152(11):1652-8.

  53. Weiss et al. 1985, Gittelman et al. 1985, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  54. Martínez-Luna, Daigre, Palma-Álvarez, Perea-Ortueta, Grau-López, Roncero, Castell-Panisello, Ramos-Quiroga (2019): Psychiatric Comorbidity and Addiction Severity Differences in Patients With ADHD Seeking Treatment for Cannabis or Cocaine Use Disorders. J Atten Disord. 2019 Sep 24:1087054719875787. doi: 10.1177/1087054719875787.

  55. Philipsen, Heßlinger, Tebartz van Elst: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitätsstörung im Erwachsenenalter – Diagnostik, Ätiologie und Therapie (ÜBERSICHTSARBEIT), Deutsches Ärzteblatt, Jg. 105, Heft 17, 25. April 2008, Seite 311 – 317, 313 Seite 313

  56. Lugoboni, Zamboni, Mantovani, Cibin, Tamburin (2020): Gruppo InterSERT di Collaborazione Scientifica. Association between Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Intravenous Misuse of Opioid and Benzodiazepine in Patients under Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Multicentre Study. Eur Addict Res. 2020 Jan 29;1-11. doi: 10.1159/000505207. PMID: 31995807. n = 1.649

  57. Riedinger (2011): ADHS und Sucht im Erwachsenenalter

  58. Levin, Evans, Kleber (1998): Prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among cocaine abusers seeking treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Sep 1;52(1):15-25.

  59. Jacob, Haro, Koyanagi (2018): Relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and problem gambling: A mediation analysis of influential factors among 7,403 individuals from the UK. J Behav Addict. 2018 Sep 21:1-11. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.72. n = 7403

  60. García-Marín, Campos, Cuéllar-Partida, Medland, Kollins, Rentería (2021): Large-scale genetic investigation reveals genetic liability to multiple complex traits influencing a higher risk of ADHD. Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 19;11(1):22628. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01517-7. PMID: 34799595.

  61. Oner, Dirik, Taner, Caykoylu, Anlar (2007): Association between low serum ferritin and restless legs syndrome in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007 Nov;213(3):269-76. doi: 10.1620/tjem.213.269. PMID: 17984624. n = 87

  62. Cortese, Konofal, Lecendreux, Arnulf, Mouren, Darra, Dalla Bernardina (2005): Restless legs syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review of the literature. Sleep. 2005 Aug 1;28(8):1007-13. doi: 10.1093/sleep/28.8.1007. PMID: 16218085. REVIEW

  63. Zak, Fisher, Couvadelli, Moss, Walters (2009): Preliminary study of the prevalence of restless legs syndrome in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Jun;108(3):759-63. doi: 10.2466/PMS.108.3.759-763. PMID: 19725311. n = 30

  64. Huang, Chen, Li, Wu, Chao, Guilleminault (2004): Sleep disorders in Taiwanese children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Sleep Res. 2004 Sep;13(3):269-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2004.00408.x. PMID: 15339263. n = 88

  65. Picchietti, Underwood, Farris, Walters, Shah, Dahl, Trubnick, Bertocci, Wagner, Hening (1999): Further studies on periodic limb movement disorder and restless legs syndrome in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mov Disord. 1999 Nov;14(6):1000-7. doi: 10.1002/1531-8257(199911)14:6<1000::aid-mds1014>3.0.co;2-p. PMID: 10584676.

  66. Didriksen, Thørner, Erikstrup, Pedersen, Paarup, Petersen, Hansen, Banasik, Nielsen, Hjalgrim, Jennum, Sørensen, Burgdorf, Ullum (2019): Self-reported restless legs syndrome and involuntary leg movements during sleep are associated with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Sleep Med. 2019 Feb 11;57:115-121. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2019.01.039. n = 25.336

  67. Picchietti, Allen, Walters, Davidson, Myers, Ferini-Strambi (2007): Restless legs syndrome: prevalence and impact in children and adolescents–the Peds REST study. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug;120(2):253-66. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-2767. PMID: 17671050.

  68. Tilma, Thomsen, Ostergaard (2014): [A possible coexistence between restless legs syndrom and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2014 Feb 17;176(4):V11120672. Danish. PMID: 25095868. REVIEW

  69. Konofal, Cortese, Marchand, Mouren, Arnulf, Lecendreux (2007): Impact of restless legs syndrome and iron deficiency on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Sleep Med. 2007 Nov;8(7-8):711-5. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2007.04.022. PMID: 17644481.

  70. Konofal, Lecendreux, Arnulf, Mouren (2004): Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Dec;158(12):1113-5. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.158.12.1113. PMID: 15583094.

  71. Lahat, Heyman, Livne, Goldman, Berkovitch, Zachor (2011): Iron deficiency in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Isr Med Assoc J. 2011 Sep;13(9):530-3. PMID: 21991711.

  72. Millichap, Yee, Davidson (2006): Serum ferritin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Mar;34(3):200-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.09.001. PMID: 16504789.

  73. Cortese, Angriman (2014): Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, iron deficiency, and obesity: is there a link? Postgrad Med. 2014 Jul;126(4):155-70. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2014.07.2793. PMID: 25141253. REVIEW

  74. Trenkwalder, Paulus (2010): Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Jun;6(6):337-46. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2010.55. PMID: 20531433. REVIEW

  75. [Picchietti MA, Picchietti DL. Advances in pediatric restless legs syndrome: Iron, genetics, diagnosis and treatment. Sleep Med. 2010 Aug;11(7):643-51. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.11.014. PMID: 20620105.](Picchietti MA, Picchietti DL. Advances in pediatric restless legs syndrome: Iron, genetics, diagnosis and treatment. Sleep Med. 2010 Aug;11(7):643-51. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.11.014. PMID: 20620105.) REVIEW

  76. Simakajornboon, Kheirandish-Gozal, Gozal (2009): Diagnosis and management of restless legs syndrome in children. Sleep Med Rev. 2009 Apr;13(2):149-56. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2008.12.002. PMID: 19186083; PMCID: PMC2911577. REVIEW

  77. Connor, Boyer, Menzies, Dellinger, Allen, Ondo, Earley (2003): Neuropathological examination suggests impaired brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome. Neurology. 2003 Aug 12;61(3):304-9. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000078887.16593.12. PMID: 12913188.

  78. Allen, Earley (2007): The role of iron in restless legs syndrome. Mov Disord. 2007;22 Suppl 18:S440-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.21607. Erratum in: Mov Disord. 2008 Jun;23(8):1200-2. PMID: 17566122. REVIEW

  79. Konofal, Lecendreux, Deron, Marchand, Cortese, Zaïm, Mouren, Arnulf (2008): Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Jan;38(1):20-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.08.014. PMID: 18054688. n = 23

  80. Ferré, Guitart, Quiroz, Rea, García-Malo, Garcia-Borreguero, Allen, Earley (2021): Akathisia and Restless Legs Syndrome: Solving the Dopaminergic Paradox. Sleep Med Clin. 2021 Jun;16(2):249-267. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2021.02.012. PMID: 33985651.

  81. P LMB, E SSA, Castro-Villacañas, Garcia-Borreguero (2021): Restless Legs Syndrome: Challenges to Treatment. Sleep Med Clin. 2021 Jun;16(2):269-277. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2021.02.003. PMID: 33985652.

  82. England, Picchietti, Couvadelli, Fisher, Siddiqui, Wagner, Hening, Lewin, Winnie, Cohen, Walters (2011): L-Dopa improves Restless Legs Syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep but not Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in a double-blind trial in children. Sleep Med. 2011 May;12(5):471-7. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2011.01.008. PMID: 21463967; PMCID: PMC3094572.

  83. Konofal, Arnulf, Lecendreux, Mouren (2005): Ropinirole in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and restless legs syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2005 May;32(5):350-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2004.11.007. PMID: 15866437.

  84. D’Agati, Curatolo, Mazzone (2019): Comorbidity between ADHD and anxiety disorders across the lifespan. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2019 Jun 24:1-7. doi: 10.1080/13651501.2019.1628277.

  85. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 53

  86. Wancata, Freidl, Fabrian (2011): Epidemiologie der Angststörungen, Journal für Neurologie Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 2011; 12 (4), 332-335

  87. Murray, Caye, McKenzie, Auyeung, Murray, Ribeaud, Freeston, Eisner (2020): Reciprocal Developmental Relations Between ADHD and Anxiety in Adolescence: A Within-Person Longitudinal Analysis of Commonly Co-Occurring Symptoms. J Atten Disord. 2020 Mar 14:1087054720908333. doi: 10.1177/1087054720908333. PMID: 32172640.

  88. Fuller-Thomson, Carrique, MacNeil (2021): Generalized anxiety disorder among adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Affect Disord. 2021 Nov 16:S0165-0327(21)01096-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.10.020. PMID: 34799150. n = 6.989

  89. Hollingdale, Woodhouse, Young, Fridman, Mandy (2019): Autistic spectrum disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytical review. Psychol Med. 2019 Sep 18:1-14. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719002368.

  90. Joshi, Wilens (2022): Pharmacotherapy of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):449-468. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2022.03.012. PMID: 35697395. REVIEW

  91. Mohammadi, Ahmadi, Khaleghi, Zarafshan, Mostafavi, Kamali, Rahgozar, Ahmadi, Hooshyari, Alavi, Shakiba, Salmanian, Molavi, Sarraf, Hojjat, Mohammadzadeh, Amiri, Arman, Ghanizadeh (2019): Prevalence of Autism and its Comorbidities and the Relationship with Maternal Psychopathology: A National Population-Based Study. Arch Iran Med. 2019 Oct 1;22(10):546-553.

  92. Lundström, Mårland, Kuja-Halkola, Anckarsäter, Lichtenstein, Gillberg, Nilsson (2019): Assessing autism in females: The importance of a sex-specific comparison. Psychiatry Res. 2019 Sep 13:112566. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112566. n = 30,392

  93. Castellanos, Tannock (2002): Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002 Aug;3(8):617-28.; PMID: 12154363 DOI: 10.1038/nrn896, S. 619

  94. Strehl et al. (2013): Neurofeedback, Kohlhammer

  95. Panagiotidi, Overton, Stafford (2017): Co-Occurrence of ASD and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.J Atten Disord. 2017 Aug 1:1087054717720720. doi: 10.1177/1087054717720720; n = 334

  96. Hara (2019): [Chronic Activation of the Dopaminergic Neuronal Pathway Improves Behavioral Abnormalities in the Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder]. [Article in Japanese] Yakugaku Zasshi. 2019;139(11):1391-1396. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.19-00131.

  97. Hara (2019): [Chronic Activation of the Dopaminergic Neuronal Pathway Improves Behavioral Abnormalities in the Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder]. [Article in Japanese] Yakugaku Zasshi. 2019;139(11):1391-1396. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.19-00131.

  98. Rothenberger, Lauth, Ramacher-Faasen, Braun, Bock, von Aster, von Aster, von Aster in Lernen und Lernstörungen (2014), 3, pp. 185-202. DOI: 10.1024/2235-0977/a000071: Kommentare zu Romanos & Jans (2014). ADHS – an der Nahtstelle von Medizin und Pädagogik. Lernen und Lernstörungen, 3, 117 – 132; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/2235-0977/a000071

  99. Büber, Başay, Şenol (2020): The prevalence and comorbidity rates of specific learning disorder among primary school children in Turkey. Nord J Psychiatry. 2020 Aug;74(6):453-460. doi: 10.1080/08039488.2020.1740782. PMID: 32186228. n = 1.041

  100. Horowitz-Kraus, Hershey, Kay, DiFrancesco (2019): Differential effect of reading training on functional connectivity in children with reading difficulties with and without ADHD comorbidity. J Neurolinguistics. 2019 Feb;49:93-108. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.09.002.

  101. McGrath, Stoodley (2019): Are there shared neural correlates between dyslexia and ADHD? A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. J Neurodev Disord. 2019 Nov 21;11(1):31. doi: 10.1186/s11689-019-9287-8.

  102. Schuhmacher (2016): Fehler muss man sehen! Visuelle Funktions- und Informationsverarbeitungsstörungen bei Schulkindern. Vortrag, Youtube

  103. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 40

  104. Daucourt, Erbeli, Little, Haughbrook, Hart (2020): A Meta-Analytical Review of the Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Reading and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Reading and Math. Sci Stud Read. 2020;24(1):23-56. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2019.1631827. PMID: 32189961; PMCID: PMC7079676. METASTUDIE

  105. Lauth: ADHS bei Erwachsenen: Diagnostik und Behandlung von Aufmerksamkeits-/ Hyperaktivitätsstörungen, Seite 97

  106. Pinna, Visioli, Rago, Manchia, Tondo, Baldessarini (2018): Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in adult bipolar disorder patients. J Affect Disord. 2018 Sep 17;243:391-396. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.038.

  107. Hossain, Mainali, Bhimanadham, Imran, Ahmad, Patel (2019): Medical and Psychiatric Comorbidities in Bipolar Disorder: Insights from National Inpatient Population-based Study. Cureus. 2019 Sep 12;11(9):e5636. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5636.

  108. Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Giaroli, Thygesen, Shenyan, Bigdeli, Bass, Diaconu, Neagu, Forstner, Degenhardt, Herms, Nöthen, McQuillin (2019): Predictive power of the ADHD GWAS 2019 polygenic risk scores in independent samples of bipolar patients with childhood ADHD. J Affect Disord. 2019 Nov 23. pii: S0165-0327(19)32310-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.109.

  109. O’Connell, Shadrin, Bahrami, Smeland, Bettella, Frei, Krull, Askeland, Walters, Davíðsdóttir, Haraldsdóttir, Guðmundsson, Stefánsson, Fan, Steen, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Dale, Stefánsson, Djurovic, Andreassen (2019): Identification of genetic overlap and novel risk loci for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 2. doi: 10.1038/s41380-019-0613-z. n = 105.000

  110. Meier, Pavlova, Dalsgaard, Nordentoft, Mors, Mortensen, Uher (2018): Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders as precursors of bipolar disorder onset in adulthood. Br J Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;213(3):555-560. doi: 10.1192/bjp.2018.111.

  111. Hängen Übergewicht und ADHS bei Kindern zusammen?

  112. Reinblatt, Mahone, Tanofsky-Kraff, Lee-Winn, Yenokyan, Leoutsakos, Moran, Guarda, Riddle (2015): Pediatric loss of control eating syndrome: Association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and impulsivity. Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Sep;48(6):580-8. doi: 10.1002/eat.22404.

  113. Mohammadi, Mostafavi, Hooshyari, Khaleghi, Ahmadi, Molavi, Armani Kian, Safavi, Delpisheh, Talepasand, Hojjat, Pourdehghan, Ostovar, Hosseini, Mohammadzadeh, Salmanian, Alavi, Ahmadi, Zarafshan (2019): Prevalence, correlates and comorbidities of feeding and eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Int J Eat Disord. 2019 Nov 19. doi: 10.1002/eat.23197. n = 27.111

  114. Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, LaPadula (1993): Adult outcome of hyperactive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993 Jul;50(7):565-76. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820190067007. PMID: 8317950. n = 103

  115. Nach ADHS-Netzwerkstudie “Persönlichkeitsstörungen”, n = 156, zitiert nach NICOLAY (2009); IPSM-adhs Grundlagen, Teil 3

  116. Buitelaar, Posthumus, Bijlenga, Buitelaar (2019): The Impact of ADHD Treatment on Intimate Partner Violence in a Forensic Psychiatry Setting. J Atten Disord. 2019 Oct 16:1087054719879502. doi: 10.1177/1087054719879502.

  117. Vuksanovic (2013): Die Aktivität der Hpothalamus-Hypophysen-Nebennierenrinden-Achse bei Aufmerksamkeits-Defizit und Hyperaktivitäts-Störung, Dissertation, Seite 102, 114

  118. Huang, Cheng, Tsai, Bai, Li, Lin, Su, Chen, Chen (2020): Familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders among first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a nationwide study. Psychol Med. 2020 Jan 7:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719003696. n = 89.500

  119. Sawitzky-Rose (2011): Assoziation von ADHS und Übergewicht bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland: Ergebnisse der BELLA-Studie, Dissertation

  120. Barkley, Murphy (1998): ADHD: A Clinical Workbook; Milwaukee Young Adult Outcome Study, zitiert nach Oehler (2009), Vortrag beim 4. ADHS-Gipfel in Hamburg, 06.-08.02.2009

  121. Skoglund, Kopp Kallner, Skalkidou, Wikström, Lundin, Hesselman, Wikman, Sundström Poromaa (2019): Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Teenage Birth Among Women and Girls in Sweden. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Oct 2;2(10):e1912463. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12463. n = 384.103

  122. Ashjazadeh, Sahraeian, Sabzgolin, Asadi-Pooya (2019): Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2019 Nov 4;101(Pt A):106543. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106543. n = 200

  123. Dunbar, Lee, Maheshwari (2019): High Yield of Screening for ADHD in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. J Atten Disord. 2019 Nov 9:1087054719886359. doi: 10.1177/1087054719886359.

  124. Kuwano, Nakao, Yonemoto, Yamada, Murayama, Okada, Honda, Ikari, Tomiyama, Hasuzawa, Kanba (2020): Clinical characteristics of hoarding disorder in Japanese patients. Heliyon. 2020 Mar 6;6(3):e03527. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03527. PMID: 32181397; PMCID: PMC7063155. n = 71

  125. Tsai, Chang, Chen, Jeng, Yang, Wu (2020): Associations Between Psychiatric Disorders and Enuresis in Taiwanese Children: A National Population-Based Study. Clin Epidemiol. 2020 Feb 18;12:163-171. doi: 10.2147/CLEP.S230537. PMID: 32110107; PMCID: PMC7035896.

  126. Septier, Stordeur, Zhang, Delorme, Cortese (2019): Association between suicidal spectrum behaviors and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Aug;103:109-118. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.05.022.

  127. Levy, Kronenberg, Crosbie, Schachar (2020): Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidality in children: The mediating role of depression, irritability and anxiety symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2020 Mar 15;265:200-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.022. PMID: 32090742. n = 1.517

  128. Yılmaz, Tamam (2018): Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and impulsivity in female patients with fibromyalgia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018 Jul 24;14:1883-1889. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S159312. eCollection 2018. n = 132

  129. Chen, Pan, Huang, Hsu, Bai, Su, Li, Tsai, Cheng, Chen (2019): Coaggregation of Major Psychiatric Disorders in First-Degree Relatives of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 30;80(3). pii: 18m12371. doi: 10.4088/JCP.18m12371.

Diese Seite wurde am 09.08.2022 zuletzt aktualisiert.