Dear reader of ADxS.org, please excuse the disruption.

ADxS.org needs about $63500 in 2024. In 2023 we received donations of about $ 32200. Unfortunately, 99.8% of our readers do not donate. If everyone who reads this request makes a small contribution, our fundraising campaign for 2024 would be over after a few days. This donation request is displayed 23,000 times a week, but only 75 people donate. If you find ADxS.org useful, please take a minute and support ADxS.org with your donation. Thank you!

Since 01.06.2021 ADxS.org is supported by the non-profit ADxS e.V..

$18094 of $63500 - as of 2024-04-30
28%
Header Image
Non-drug treatment and therapy of ADHD - Overview

Sitemap

Non-drug treatment and therapy of ADHD - Overview

This article summarizes the non-drug treatment and therapy approaches known to us.
The (+) and (-) in the headings reflect our assessment of the benefits for ADHD.

In our experience, drug treatment is the most important and sensible form of therapy for severe and moderate forms of ADHD.
Among the thousands of people with ADHD that we got to know via the forum, those who thought that they had achieved sufficient symptom improvement with psychotherapy were not only clearly in the minority, but even more clearly: barely represented.
in our opinion, (suitable) ADHD medications deem effective (or suitable) are given an efficacy label of (+++++).

  • ADHD should definitely be treated with medication - at least temporarily - especially at the beginning of therapy.
    People with ADHD who have never felt what it is like to live without these distressing symptoms cannot understand the goal of non-drug therapy from their own perception. Edel/Vollmoeller argue in a similar way.1 In addition, dopamine is a neurotrophic factor, which means that it is required for learning processes in the brain. The dopamine deficiency typical of ADHD therefore prevents learning success and should be remedied before psychotherapeutic treatment.
  • A large meta-analysis of 190 studies involving 26,114 participants with ADHD found that stimulants appeared to be superior to behavioral therapy, cognitive training, and non-stimulants. Stimulants in combination with behavioral therapy appeared to be the most effective.2
  • Medications show a much greater Effect size on ADHD symptoms than non-pharmacological treatments.3
  • Presentation of the drug treatment at Medication for ADHD - Overview.

Non-pharmacological treatments are important supportive measures which, in combination with medication, can lead to relevant additional improvements.
Psychoeducation, self-help groups, sports, psychotherapy, mindfulness techniques and neurofeedback are particularly noteworthy.

1. Non-drug therapy approaches for ADHD

A review of inter- and intra-individual psychological treatments for ADHD found that psychoeducation and parent training, school-based interventions, reinforcement strategies and neurofeedback consistently showed small to moderate Effect sizes in reducing hyperactivity/impulsivity in children. Emotional self-regulation, social skills and cognitive training, on the other hand, showed unsatisfactory results. A combination with medication brought about considerably greater improvements.4

1.1. Psychoeducation (+++)

Source5

1.1.1. Books, websites, seminars, lectures, films

Knowledge about people with ADHD helps them in several ways

  • Who am I, what about me is ADHD?
    Recognizing which symptoms stem from ADHD and that these are treatable makes it easier to identify your own personality: who you “actually” are without this ADHD. This differentiation helps to learn to accept oneself and to understand ADHD symptoms as something that is inherent but not unchangeable. This is helpful for the often very impaired self-esteem of people with ADHD.
  • Handling requires knowledge
    Understanding the symptoms, their causes and their effects makes it possible to deal with them in a helpful way, in particular:
    • The choice of suitable treatment methods
    • Environmental interventions (see above)
  • Understanding others
    Knowing what constitutes ADHD, how it affects perception and action, helps to understand other people. People with ADHD, who have never known anything else as normal all their lives, can recognize why other people feel and act differently where they do not have ADHD symptoms.
  • Knowledge facilitates renewal of the self-concept
    A person with ADHD who has experienced a lifetime of rejection because they are not what they should be can begin to rebuild their self-esteem, which has usually been completely destroyed by then, by understanding that most of the negative reactions were not triggered by themselves but by ADHD6
  • Limit: Avoid negative bias
    The danger of self-fulfilling prophecies should be recognized and avoided.
    Unreflective identification with ADHD symptoms can be harmful.
    You are not ADHD - you have ADHD.
    No person with ADHD has all the symptoms of the cluster.
  • Using the advantages of ADHD
    In some specific circumstances and aspects, people with ADHD have an advantage over people without ADHD. This advantage can only be exploited if you know the conditions under which the advantages apply.

1.1.2. Self-help groups, forums

1.2. Endurance sports, fitness training (+++)

(Endurance) sports appear to be the best non-drug form of treatment for ADHD.789

For many people with ADHD, especially those with ADHD-HI and ADHD-HI-C, regular intensive sports (burning off excess energy) is essential. As a rule, sports can support ADHD treatment, but are only likely to be sufficient on their own in very mild cases
In the experience of people with ADHD, weight training, in contrast to endurance sports, is apparently much less suitable for combating ADHD symptoms in the long term.

One study found a 21% reduction in the tendency to exercise in children with ADHD.10 Another study found a 3.23-fold increase in excessive physical activity in children with ADHD compared to those not affected.11

1.2.1. ADHD symptoms and sports

Studies report improvements in children with ADHD as a result of sports training:

  • Attention1213 14 , SMD = 0.8415 to 1.7916, especially through cognitively demanding physical activity.17, also through exercise therapy18
    • Memory accuracy19
    • Selective attention1920
      • By strengthening the sensorimotor basis21
    • Sustained attention20
    • Fewer omission errors19
    • Reduced interference errors19
  • Cognitive performance1422 23 , also through exercise therapy18
    • Clear24
    • Statistically significant, but small in Effect size25
  • Orientation behavior improved comparably by sports, MPH and atomoxetine in SHR26
  • Academic performance27
  • Hyperactivity1213 14 , SMD = 0.5615
  • Impulsivity/inhibition1213 27 19 28 14 , SMD = 0.78, meta-analysis29, SMD = 0.56, meta-analysis15
    • Moderate aerobic sports improved inhibition in ADHD just as well as intensive aerobic sports30
  • Executive functions31
    • Through a single 30-minute sports exercise323321
    • After long-term training2134 , low to moderate35, SMD = 0.5815 to 2.1916
  • Neuroplasticity of nerve cells and synaptic connections21
  • Behavior27
    • Social problems14
    • Social disorders, SMD = 0.5915
    • Aggression14
    • Social behavior comparably improved by sports, MPH and atomoxetine in SHR26
  • Sleep quality.34, also through exercise therapy18
  • Motor skills21
  • Depression
    • Exercise improves your mood
      Even for people who find exercise unpleasant, a half-hour walk has a mood-lifting effect
    • Endurance sport has an antidepressant effect.3614
    • Exercise therapy is helpful18
  • Fear
    Endurance sport has an anxiolytic (anxiety-relieving) effect.3714 , SMD = 0.6615
  • Stress
    • Sports have a regulating effect on stress38
      • Preventive
        • Sports prevent stress.3940
      • Buffering
        acute and habitual physical activity can buffer the negative effects of stressful events on physical and mental health
        • Strengthening resources
          • If sports are included in options for action, sports themselves are available as a stress-reducing tool
          • Group sport creates social bonding
            • Reduces the stressor of social isolation, especially for mental patients41
        • Reaction reduction
          in trained people, negative stress reactions do not occur to the full extent in the first place
          • Cognitive
          • Affective
          • Behavioral
          • Biological
            • Trained men respond to psychological stressors (TSST) in comparison to untrained men42
              • Significantly lower cortisol stress response (with the same basal cortisol level)
              • Significantly lower increase in heart rate
              • Significantly greater calmness, better mood and a tendency to react less anxiously to psychological stress
      • Compensating
        negative stress reactions are reduced or balanced out by sports and exercise
        • Sports reduce cortisol
  • Social behavior with ASD18

1.2.2. Neurophysiological changes through sports

Sports are said to cause an increase in:

  • Dopamine21434445
    • Sports (as well as MPH) can induce the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)46 and thereby increase TH levels. TH is a precursor for dopamine. Sports can thus support dopamine synthesis.
  • Noradrenaline4748 , in the brain regions relevant for ADHD47
  • Serotonin2147 48
  • Acetylcholine4748
  • GABA4748
  • BDNF2147 48
  • Blood flow in the brain21
  • Inflammation levels reduced through regular exercise49
  • Oxidative stress reduced through regular exercise49
  • Stress hormones reduced through regular exercise49
    (during sports competitions, the above three values are increased)
  • Telomerase activity in humans and mice increased by regular exercise49
    • Counteracts behavioral changes caused by stress-induced telomere shortening
  • Calorie consumption
    • Contrary to previous assumptions, sports do not appear to increase calorie consumption. Among the Hadza people, active hunter-gatherers in Africa, women walk an average of 8 km and men an average of 14 km a day, but do not consume any more energy than sedentary office workers in the USA.5051 52 53 Hadza are active and fit up to the age of 70 and 80 and are said to have neither diabetes nor heart disease.
    • However, high calorie consumption through exercise reduces stress systems and inflammatory reactions and thus reduces the calorie consumption that the stress reactions would have caused.52 Acute physical stress barely increases cerebral blood flow, but there is a redistribution in brain regions involved in motor control and coordination (e.g. vestibular) and transport systems (respiration, circulation).54 This could be the nutritional-physiological equivalent of the long-standing finding that sports have a stress-regulating effect.
    • This sheds a whole new light on the common side effect of stimulants of reduced appetite. We hypothesize that this could be an adaptive response to the body’s decreased energy expenditure due to reduced stress responses. Further, we wonder whether hyperactivity as a symptom of the externalizing ADHD subtypes could possibly be a (misguided) compensatory response of the body, as inflammation is more common in the externalizing stress phenotype than in the internalizing ADHD-I subtype.

One-off training has statistically significant but small Effect size improvements in cognitive performance during, immediately after and delayed after the training session.25 In another study, working memory and inhibition were impaired immediately during exercise in people with ADHD compared to those without ADHD55
The benefits of acute physical activity can gradually accumulate over time.21

A combination of sports training with cognitive tasks for children with ADHD proved to be helpful21, but not superior to sports training alone20

1.3. Psychotherapy

For information on choosing a suitable psychotherapist for ADHD, see Choosing a suitable psychotherapist for ADHD.

1.3.1. Behavioral therapy (+)

  • Treatment covered by statutory health insurance in D
  • A comprehensive study showed that treatment with medication is superior to treatment with behavioral therapy or clinical care. Multimodal treatment (combined treatment with medication and behavioral therapy or clinical care) appears to be the most promising.5657
  • A large meta-analysis of 190 studies with 26,114 participants with ADHD also found that behavioral therapy is effective for ADHD. Stimulants were superior to behavioral therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Stimulants in combination with behavioral therapy appeared to be the most effective.58
1.3.1.1. Mindfulness-based behavioral therapy (Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, MBCT) (+++)
  • According to a meta-analysis, each of the 13 studies analyzed found improvements in ADHD symptoms through mindfulness-based interventions.59 Other studies came to similar conclusions.6061
  • A combined MBCT / MBSR therapy resulted in increased activity and connectivity of the PFC, the cingulate cortex, the insula and the hippocampus in stressed, anxious and healthy people after just 8 weeks. The improvements corresponded to what can be achieved with prolonged meditation practice. The functional activity of the amygdala decreased and the connectivity of the amygdala with the PFC was improved. In addition, the amygdala was deactivated more quickly after emotional stimuli.62 Further studies confirm these results.6364
  • An additional MBCT treatment resulted in a significantly greater improvement in symptoms 6 months after the end of therapy than conventional treatment methods alone.65
  • Mindfulness meditation reduced cortisol and inflammation levels and increased telomerase, which counteracts behavioral changes caused by stress-induced telomere shortening.66
  • Mindfulness-based treatment improved the core symptoms of attention problems and hyperactivity in ADHD.67
  • A meta-analysis of 32 studies found evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based behavioral therapy (there: mindfulness) for ADHD.68
1.3.1.2. Cognitive behavioral therapy (o to +)
  • A meta-analysis of 32 studies found positive results for cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in the majority.68
  • A meta-analysis found benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in parent ratings, but less in the reduction of functional symptoms.13
  • According to Barkley, cognitive behavioral therapy does not work for children with ADHD.69
  • Parental treatment is much more effective for young children.
  • Patients between the ages of 7 and 6 with ASD and anxiety or Compulsions were 4 times more likely to respond to cognitive behavioral therapy when comorbid ADHD was present, according to one study.70
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is most suitable for self-esteem problems caused by ADHD71 and for deficits in social behavior.
  • According to a meta-analysis, different forms of therapy improved various symptoms in ADHD (SMD: standard mean difference; higher is better: up to 0.5 low to medium, up to 1 medium to high, from 1 high)72
    • Depression
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.52 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively slightly more effective than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • DBT
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, worse than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, even worse than DBT
    • Anxiety symptoms
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to larger Effect size)
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Self-worth
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • 1,404 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Quality of life
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective to slightly effective in group comparison
        • 0.57 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Subjectively very good in the short term
      • DBT
        • Very good in the short term compared to the group, ineffective in the long term
        • Subjectively moderately effective in the short term, weakly effective in the long term
    • Emotional dysregulation
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.64 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Weakly effective in the short term compared to the group, not known in the long term
        • Subjectively very effective in the short term, not known in the long term

1.3.2. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) (+)

  • Well suited for ADHD7374

  • A meta-analysis of 32 studies found evidence of benefit from group-based DBT for ADHD.68

  • One study found that DBT skills training works particularly well for externalizing people with ADHD.75

  • A digital form of DBT proved helpful for children with ADHD76

  • According to a meta-analysis, different forms of therapy improved various symptoms in ADHD (SMD: standard mean difference; higher is better: up to 0.5 low to medium, up to 1 medium to high, from 1 high)72

    • Depression
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.52 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively slightly more effective than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • DBT
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, worse than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, even worse than DBT
    • Anxiety symptoms
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Self-worth
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • 1,404 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Quality of life
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective to slightly effective in group comparison
        • 0.57 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Subjectively very good in the short term
      • DBT
        • Very good in the short term compared to the group, ineffective in the long term
        • Subjectively moderately effective in the short term, weakly effective in the long term
    • Emotional dysregulation
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.64 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Weakly effective in the short term compared to the group, not known in the long term
        • Subjectively very effective in the short term, not known in the long term
  • Elements of DBT:

    • Inner mindfulness
      • Improve self-awareness and learn to trust it
      • Feel safe in a situation without judging or devaluing it
      • Control, being able to participate in situations and maintain distance at the same time
      • Reconciling feelings and reason.
    • Interpersonal skills
      • Establishing and maintaining relationships
      • Balancing and integrating relationship maintenance and one’s own legitimate needs, opinions and self-esteem
    • Dealing with feelings
      • Recognize and name different feelings, understand their meaning
      • Controlling anger and resentment
      • Reduce vulnerability
      • Promote pleasant feelings
      • Letting go of emotional suffering
      • Strengthen confidence in your own feelings
    • Stress tolerance
      • Accept the fact that you are currently under stress
      • Keep your distance (take an inner step back)
      • Limit your thinking to the present and the next few minutes
      • Focus (distraction) through self-exposure to strong sensory stimuli
        • Ice cubes
        • Ball with spikes
      • Breathing exercises
      • “gentle smile”
      • Mindfulness exercises
      • Learning to endure unchangeable unpleasant events and feelings (“radical acceptance”).
    • Self-esteem and self-acceptance
      • Healthy self-acceptance
      • Healthy self-confidence
      • A healthy sense of self-worth
  • Structured psychotherapy

    • Very suitable for ADHD
    • Based on Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder according to Linehan77

1.3.3. Self-esteem therapy (+)

  • Very suitable for ADHD
  • Many people with ADHD have spent their entire lives under (inaccurate) accusations such as “their lack of drive is an expression of laziness”, or “their inability to behave in a socially appropriate manner is malice” (because the power of impulsive outbursts has been misunderstood). The fear of being further misunderstood makes it considerably more difficult to engage in a therapeutic relationship.78
  • Cognitive remediation program79
  • Note: In our opinion, Rejection Sensitivity is a symptom originally caused by ADHD, which responds just as well to drug treatment with stimulants as attention problems or hyperactivity/impulsivity. In our opinion, this speaks against a purely experientially mediated imprinting of self-esteem. Rejection sensitivity: offendedness and sensitivity to rejection and criticism as a specific ADHD symptom

1.3.4. EMDR-like forms of therapy (+)

  • EMDR
    EMDR is a recognized therapy option for the treatment of trauma.80 EMDR uses bilateral (alternating) activation of the two halves of the body through horizontal eye movements, alternating acoustic signals to the left/right ear or touching the left and right halves of the body. A study has shown that bilateral activation of the body leads to a reduction in activation of the PFC.81
    As EMDR-like forms of therapy such as Emoflex are said to be successful in treating ADHD, the results of the above-mentioned study could be transferable to ADHD. This is also indicated by an individual case report in which a person with ADHD was successfully treated with EMDR82
    Nevertheless, we must caution against assuming that EMDR is a suitable form of therapy for all people with ADHD. We assume that people with ADHD who have had traumatic experiences can also benefit from trauma therapy in relation to their ADHD symptoms, as trauma can be considered a possible contributory cause of ADHD. However, it cannot be deduced from this that EMDR would be useful for all people with ADHD. And there are no known studies that point in this direction.
    • Structure of EMDR therapy83
      1. Treatment planning
      2. Preparation and positive stabilization
        What good things and bad things / burdens are you aware of today?
      3. Rating
        The stressful memory is assigned a current negative paraphrase (e.g.: I am defenceless) and a future positive paraphrase (e.g.: I can protect myself).
      4. Desensitization
        The stressful perception is called up and worked through with bilateral stimulation (usually 24 items of rapid right-left alternating stimulation, visual - eye movements left/right/left, auditory - acoustic signal left/right ear, sensory - body touch on left/right side of body) with free association until the physical/emotional stress is no longer perceptible. The speed is adapted to the patient’s reactions.
      5. Anchoring
        A positive new thought base is anchored and trained in place of the previous negative one. Slow bilateral movements, approx. 60 / minute.
      6. Body test
        Ensuring that negative feelings no longer occur when remembering the stressful situation.
      7. Final meeting
        among other things, indicate that after-effects may occur, e.g. in dreams.
      8. Performance review and future orientation
    • A detailed description of EMDR therapy based on example cases can be found in Schubbe.84
  • Emoflex85
    Note: Emoflex is a protected trademark. Reports on forms of therapy that are marketed with property rights should always be viewed particularly critically, as marketing interests may play a role here.
    Emoflex is an adaptation of the EMDR technique for ADHD.

Branded therapy methods

Trademark protection for therapy methods may make economic sense for the trademark owner. However, the effectiveness of EMDR (also) for ADHD is independent of whether the therapy bears a brand name or whether it “merely” applies the underlying therapeutically effective methods (which are never protectable under trademark law).

1.3.5. Hypnotherapy for ADHD

A meta-analysis of 32 studies found evidence for a benefit of hypnotherapy for ADHD.86 Another, less comprehensive meta-analysis came to no conclusion.13

1.3.6. Mentoring

In children with learning disabilities and ADHD, mentoring showed improvements in self-confidence and social relationships, and prevented the development of depressive behavior.87

1.3.7. Time estimation training

A small study found that training with time estimation tasks improved cognitive symptoms in adults with ADHD-HI. Cortical activity in areas related to attention and memory increased significantly.88

1.3.8. Systemic therapy (0/+)

  • Particularly suitable in relation to family and group problems with ADHD. Suitable in relation to family conflicts in younger children with people with ADHD.
    Barely effective in addressing the causes of ADHD symptoms in the people with ADHD themselves.

1.3.9. Depth psychology (-)

  • Treatment covered by statutory health insurance in D
  • Limited to little suitability for ADHD without comorbidities
    Suitable for people with ADHD for whom formative experiences from childhood significantly drive the stress level. In addition to ADHD, they usually have comorbid traumas or problems from the borderline spectrum, etc. In these cases, in-depth psychological treatment can be very useful.

1.3.10. Talk therapy (-)

  • Treatment covered by statutory health insurance in D
  • Conditionally suitable for ADHD
    Talk therapy can help with the management of ADHD-related problems.
    In terms of the causes of the ADHD symptoms themselves, however, it is barely effective.
    Case study with Krause.89

1.3.11. Working Memory Training / Cognitive Working Memory Training (CWMT) (-)

A large-scale meta-analysis found insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive training for ADHD.90 A further study confirmed this.91

Another meta-analysis of 18 studies on cognitive training in schoolchildren and adolescents with ADHD found positive effects in 13 of 18 studies. 7 out of 9 studies also found these in a follow-up examination, which indicates long-term improvements.92

Another meta-analysis found evidence of possible benefits of cognitive training on working memory, but predominantly no improvements in ADHD symptomatology in parent or teacher ratings.13

Several small studies found evidence that working memory training could help to reduce the symptoms of ADHD.939495969798
A high training intensity (a total of 14 hours within 5 weeks) is said to increase the density of D1 dopamine receptors in the PFC,99 which leads to a significant reduction in the symptoms of attention and impulsivity.100
In ADHD, the working memory located in the dlPFC is impaired by reduced dopamine levels. The inhibitory dopamine transporters D2 to D4 are primarily affected. Neurophysiological correlates of working memory problems in ADHD

Working memory uses different areas of the brain for different content (number sequences, faces, names, goals). Training a specific working memory area (e.g. number sequences) therefore has barely any influence on the performance of the working memory for names.

1.3.12. Training of executive functions (-)

Research found no benefit of executive functions training in ADHD.101 According to one study, another executive function training program (EXAT) worked better for ADHD than for epilepsy.102
2 different executive, attention and motor training programs for children aged 4 to 5 were found to be equally effective.103

A meta-analysis of executive function training in preschool children reports no benefits for non-people with ADHD, but mentions benefits for persons with ADHD.104

1.3.13. Analysis ( - - )

  • Treatment covered by statutory health insurance in D
  • Not suitable for ADHD
    • So does Simchen105

1.3.14. Impulse control training (?)

A small study reports the effectiveness of impulse control training for pre-school children.106

1.4. Mindfulness techniques (+++)

Mindfulness techniques are very well suited for the treatment of ADHD. A meta-analysis found positive results in 11 out of 12 studies in relation to the treatment of ADHD.107 A meta-analysis found improvements in inattention in adults, while too little data was available for children.108 One review found MBSR to be a useful supportive treatment method for ADHD.109

  • Stress-relieving110
  • Stress-preventing111
  • Mood-lifting112
  • Procrastination-inhibiting112113 (which is only natural, as procrastination is a symptom of stress)
  • Executive functions improved114
  • Mindfulness-based treatment improves the core symptoms of attention problems and hyperactivity in ADHD.67
  • Mindfulness training targets the autonomic nervous system
  • In one study, stress management reduced the basal DHEA level and increased the cortisol level. The change in the cortisol-DHEA ratio achieved was stress resistance-promoting.115
    It should be noted that, depending on the disorder, the cortisol/DHEA ratio may be imbalanced in one direction or the other.
    DHEA/cortisol imbalance during stress
    Psychological stress therapy should always influence the relationship in the direction of a healthy balance. In the case of drug treatment, the direction in which the balance is shifted must first be determined.
    • Internal / external
      internal: it’s up to me personally (me, my)
      external: it’s the circumstances (the others, out there)
    • Stable / variable
      stable: it is unchangeable (always, never)
      variable: I can influence it
    • Global / specific
      global: it is always and everywhere like this (everywhere, lawfulness)
      specific: the cause lies in this case itself (here, this time)Mindfulness trains a change in perception. It trains you to no longer immediately attribute the perceived event, but to let it stand on its own. This enables a less frightening and threatening perception, which can massively reduce stress as a consequence.
  • According to a meta-analysis, different forms of therapy improved various symptoms in ADHD (SMD: standard mean difference; higher is better: up to 0.5 low to medium, up to 1 medium to high, from 1 high)72
    • Depression
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.52 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively slightly more effective than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • DBT
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, worse than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, even worse than DBT
    • Anxiety symptoms
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Self-worth
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • 1.404 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Quality of life
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective to slightly effective in group comparison
        • 0.57 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Subjectively very good in the short term
      • DBT
        • Very good in the short term compared to the group, ineffective in the long term
        • Subjectively moderately effective in the short term, weakly effective in the long term
    • Emotional dysregulation
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.64 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Weakly effective in the short term compared to the group, not known in the long term
        • Subjectively very effective in the short term, not known in the long term
  • Mindfulness meditation reduced ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention), but breathing techniques did not, while both techniques reduced stress.116
  • Mindfulness training still showed positive effects on children with ADHD in the parent evaluation 6 months later117
  • A meta-analysis came to the conclusion that mindfulness techniques are a helpful supplement in the treatment of ADHD.118

How mindfulness works

Roughly speaking, the technique of mindfulness involves creating a virtual distance from perceived circumstances. In simple terms, mindfulness means separating perception and its immediate evaluation for oneself. You are trained to perceive very consciously what is happening and at the same time not to relate the events to yourself, i.e. not to take them as a reason for a reaction, but merely to observe the effect of the events on yourself with interest. This stops the automatism of the immediate impact of perceptions on one’s own state of mind.

In other words

You realize that everything is still happening in the same way, but that it no longer poses an immediate existential threat. It happens, and yet you go on living. The subjective threat of what is happening is reduced.

This technique makes sense if the automated stress regulation has previously been misdirected in such a way that events are attributed too directly to oneself.

Attribution styles

There are different attribution styles,119 how perceived circumstances are explained. Example:
A student fails an exam.
The following reaction options (i.e. attribution styles) are conceivable:

  • I’m just too stupid. (Internal - stable - global)
  • I really didn’t learn anything for this exam. (Internal - variable - specific)
  • This time I was just unlucky. (External - variable - specific)
  • They always give me the stupidest tasks. (External - stable - global)

Summarized attribution dimensions result in specific interpretations:120

  • Internal-stable: ability
  • Internal-variable: Effort
  • External-stable: task difficulty
  • External-variable: Luck/Pitch
    • Pessimistic attribution style: failures are attributed internally, globally, stably
    • Optimistic attribution style: failures are attributed externally, specifically, unstably

We assume that a global internal attribution style makes people susceptible to perceiving experiences in a threatening and fearful way.
Fearful and threatening perceptions quickly lead to cortisolergic stress.

1.4.1. Neurophysiological mechanisms of action of mindfulness techniques (here: MBSR)

  • Mindfulness training is able to sustainably reduce cortisol levels.121
  • In generalized anxiety disorder, there is an overactivation of the amygdala with ambivalent signals and a poor functional connection between the amygdala and ventrolateral PFC. MBSR reduces the overactivation of the amygdala for neutral faces more than stress management. MBSR, but not stress management, caused greater activation of the ventrolateral PFC and also improved the connection between the ventrolateral PFC and the amygdala. All changes coincided with the improvements in anxiety symptoms, indicating causal effects. The previously negative coupling of the amygdala with the activity of the ventrolateral PFC, as known in emotion reduction, changed to a positive coupling. MBSR appears to bring about substantial changes in brain regions that are relevant for emotion regulation.122
  • The functional activity of the amygdala decreased and the connectivity of the amygdala with the PFC improved. In addition, the deactivation of the amygdala after emotional stimuli was faster.62
  • Since MBSR has been shown to be very effective for ADHD, we assume that there is an analogous improvement in communication between different areas of the brain.
    Further studies show the effects of MBSR on neuronal activity.123
  • Mindfulness-based meditation technique may be superior to relaxation training in terms of long-term normalization of cortisol response.124
  • MBSR appears to be able to improve the emotional self-regulation of people with ADHD.125
  • MBSR may improve ADHD symptoms not so much through improved mindfulness skills or improved self-compassion, but through improved inhibition.126

1.4.2. Types of mindfulness techniques

  • Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) according to Kabat Zinn127
  • A combined MBCT and MBSR therapy showed the same results after 8 weeks as are known from long-term meditation practice.62
  • Stress management (possibly less effective than MBSR)122
  • Yoga
    • Yoga was moderately effective12813
    • Yoga appears to improve the core symptoms of ADHD in children, according to several meta-analyses.12913130
  • Meditation62
    • Zen meditation
      increased serotonin levels in the brain in the long term
    • In experienced meditators, an increase in cortical thickness in the right insula and the frontal lobes has been demonstrated.131
    • During mindfulness meditation, more gray matter was observed in areas of the brain typically used during meditation in intensive meditators (2 hours a day for more than 8 years). People with ADHD are the right insula, which is involved in introspective attention (“interoceptive awareness”), the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right hippocampus.132
    • A meta-analysis found evidence of the effectiveness of meditation techniques in children, adolescents and adults.133 The results are said to indicate a stronger effect on inattention than on impulsivity/hyperactivity.
  • Biofeedback
  • Relaxation massages
    Massage therapy resulted in a 31% reduction in the cortisol response to stress and an increase in dopamine and serotonin of around 30%.134
    Massage therapy is said to be able to outperform the effect of methylphenidate.135
  • Shiatsu
  • Qigong
  • Tai chi chuan
    • A meta-analysis found a consistently positive effect of Tai chi on ADHD symptoms, although the quality of the studies was rather low.13
  • Respiratory therapy
  • Progressive muscle relaxation according to Jacobson
  • Feldenkrais
  • Sound massages
  • Archery or other shooting sports (with slight positive effects on ADHD)136
  • Mindfulness apps
    also for your cell phone, which you always have with you anyway to take advantage of short breaks.137

Example of a mindfulness exercise: letting go for 100 breaths

Procedure:

  • Find a quiet place where you are undisturbed

  • Lie down / sit down comfortably

  • Close your eyes

  • Pay attention to your own breath

  • Each time you let go of your breath, count backwards from 100 to zero, one number for each time you let go of your breath.

  • Every time you let go of your breath, make sure that your belly lets go completely relaxed. And starting from the belly, Consequences, the whole body relaxes with the release of the breath.
    (There are two types of breath: Active inhalers and active exhalers; the respective passive side is to let go of the breath)

  • Each time you release your breath, concentrate on feeling how your stomach relaxes

  • Recap the exercise text (below) during the exercise

  • If necessary, background noise of the sea (this also masks possible street noise); if necessary, headphones with sound recording of the spoken text, if necessary earplugs, if alone for yourself, and remember text silently

In group: Leader speaks meditation text;
Length: participants keep eyes closed as long as it works; those who stop open their eyes, wait quietly or, if necessary, read something until (most of) the others have finished; leader then ends the presentation of the meditation text

Exercise text:

You are here
Feel your body
You don’t have to do anything now
You can be with yourself
You can only feel yourself now
You don’t have to do anything else
Nobody wants anything from you
Feel your breath
Relax your belly as you let go of your breath
and the rest of the body with the stomach
Feel what it feels like when your stomach relaxes
Try to let go completely, with each release of breath
There are thoughts
Let them come
Perceive them
Do they have a color, a shape?
Look at her coming
Do not follow them
Let them go again
Watch them disappear
You are here
You feel your body
You feel yourself
If trouble comes, watch it
Make yourself aware of her wish. What does she want? Have to do something? Want to think? To look at problems? What does the wish that is there want?
Feel it
Don’t deny him, don’t follow him
Look at him, watch him
Feel the desire
How does this urge feel?
Does it have a sound, a smell?
What does it feel like outside of this desire?
You are relaxed
And let go of your belly every time you let go of your breath
And observe what you are feeling or thinking right now
Feel your body
Feel your feelings
Observe what you feel
Do not Consequences the feeling, just observe it
And let it go again
When unrest comes, watch how it comes
Don’t call them here
If it is there, notice it, feel it
Do not follow her
How does it feel?
Does it have a sound, a movement?
Look at them
She may be
She has no right to determine you
Let them go again
You are here
Feel your body
You don’t have to do anything now
You can be with yourself
You can only feel yourself now
You don’t have to do anything else
Nobody wants anything from you
All thoughts that come can wait
when they are important, they come back
Now you are the most important thing
Everything else has its time later

(continue)..
..
..

The exercise aims to ensure that feelings/thoughts/inner restlessness are not denied = not suppressed.
It is easier not to follow something that is not suppressed. This naturally requires an inner position outside the pressure.
I want the feeling/thought to be there - and they don’t define me.
I am beside them, not through them.
Feelings / thoughts are there and they are not me.
They are a part of me, and only a part.
I am not these thoughts and feelings, I have them.
I have them, not they have me.

The questions about color, form and sound are aimed at viewing feelings and thoughts as something from outside, as something third, thereby separating them from oneself and not being controlled by them.

The learning steps should / could be:
Learning to perceive, to perceive and feel yourself as an alternative and separate from these thoughts and feelings. Learning to feel this “me” as an alternative.
Learning to evoke the alternative safely.
Strengthen the alternative until it is a greater option.
Let the alternative grow to such an extent that you can feel it as a basis, sense it and live it permanently at some point.

Training path:
(Introduction to transformation in daily routine)

  • First times with optimal medication
  • Increase in difficulty depending on progress with less and less / at the edge / end of medication effectiveness
  • To without medication (if possible)
  • Initially in your own ritual, in a specific, quiet place, possibly at a fixed time
  • Later less and less isolated, sometimes spontaneously
  • To the middle of the day

1.5. Neurofeedback (+)

Neurofeedback as ADHD therapy

Sources138139140

  • Well to very well suited for ADHD
  • In our opinion, this is the only form of therapy with a healing effect, as the brain’s self-regulation mechanisms can be permanently improved. Nevertheless, its effectiveness is very limited.
  • In our opinion, longer treatments are required than typically recommended
  • In particular, a combination of frequency band training and subsequent SCP training seems to produce good results.
  • Neurofeedback training types
    • SMR training
      acts on relaxed attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity
    • Theta beta training
      affects concentration, tense attention
    • Alpha training
      acts on relaxation, sleep problems
    • SCP training
      Trauung of the slow cortical potentials
      acts on activation (for ADHD-I) and downregulation (for ADHD-HI)
      very strenuous, but also very helpful when carried out
  • In a small study, neurofeedback improved visual memory, acoustic short-term memory and auditory working memory, but not perceptual organization.141
  • However, neurofeedback is not a substitute for treatment with medication (especially in the first few years), but a supplement to therapy that can reduce the need for medication.
  • According to a meta-analysis, different forms of therapy improved various symptoms in ADHD (SMD: standard mean difference; higher is better: up to 0.5 low to medium, up to 1 medium to high, from 1 high)142
    • Depression
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to larger Effect size)
        • 0.52 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively slightly more effective than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • DBT
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, worse than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, even worse than DBT
    • Anxiety symptoms
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.74 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Self-worth
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • 1,404 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • Neurofeedback
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively more effective in the long term than cognitive behavioral therapy
      • MBSR
        • Ineffective in group comparison
        • Subjectively moderately effective, ineffective in the long term
      • DBT
        • Completely ineffective
    • Quality of life
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • Ineffective to slightly effective in group comparison
        • 0.57 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Subjectively very good in the short term
      • DBT
        • Very good in the short term compared to the group, ineffective in the long term
        • Subjectively moderately effective in the short term, weakly effective in the long term
    • Emotional dysregulation
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (medium to large Effect size)
        • 0.64 SMD in follow-up in group comparison
        • 0.73 SMD in follow-up subjectively for affected person
      • MBSR
        • Weakly effective in the short term compared to the group, not known in the long term
        • Subjectively very effective in the short term, not known in the long term

1.6. Environmental interventions (++)

  • Parent training

    • Parent training seems to be helpful for children with ADHD.143 This particularly applies to children with ODD144 and young children.145
  • Interventions in school/kindergarten (-)

    • One meta-analysis reported that classroom interventions/school interventions were found to be partly ineffective and partly effective only as long as the interventions lasted.13
  • Environmental adaptation

    • Suitable job (++)
      • Arousing enough interest to activate hyperfocus
      • Enough variety to keep your attention alert146
      • ADHD-HI: often with physical exercise
      • ADHD-I: no quick decisions
    • Suitable working environment (+)
      • According to the needs of the person with ADHD
        • Background noise
          • Every person needs their own specific level of arousal (excitement, stimulation).147148
        • Even if novelty seeking and curiosity behavior correlate (also genetically) with impulsivity,149 it is probably important for most people with ADHD-HI to reduce arousal, but for people with ADHD-I to increase arousal.
    • Stimulate arousal
      • Targeted (quiet) background music
        • Some people can only learn with it
      • TV running in the background
        • If noises / images are distracting: switch off
      • Motivational elements
        • Very important, as people with ADHD can basically concentrate just as intensely as others. The only difference is that they cannot produce this concentration in a controlled manner, let alone control it. This is not carelessness or laziness.
        • Intrinsic motivation instead of extrinsic motivation: the central key
        • Rewards
        • Competition with others
          • Communicate goals to others (create commitment / self-commitment)
        • Don’t make people with ADHD feel guilty
          • None: You can if you want to
          • None: You just have to try harder
            • Friedmann reports of people with ADHD who lost their ADHD symptoms after finding a working environment that suited their constitution: short attention spans, frequent activation, independent work organization. We also know of cases that blossomed in an environment that suited them perfectly. This does not mean that only every person with ADHD has to find the right environment in order to no longer have ADHD. ADHD means that the choice of which environment is suitable is extremely limited. Very few people with ADHD will be able to build their world in this way. In our opinion, however, another element must be added: genuine interest. Only when this genuine interest of their own kicks in will people with ADHD be able to resolve their attention problems. Friedmann points out that the reduced number of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the reward center of the brain in people with ADHD means that fewer things are found (rewarding), i.e. sufficiently exciting, than in people without ADHD. The choice of an exciting environment therefore necessarily requires that it is something that is of (such) high interest to the person with ADHD that the reward center “jumps” and the attention of the person with ADHD is aroused. The sentence “You can do it if you want to” is absolutely correct, but not in the way it is usually misunderstood. ADHD can only be understood if one is prepared to accept that the will of the person with ADHD is not completely free to choose, but depends on the subject being so interesting that the shortcoming of the reduced number of D2 and D3 dopamine receptors no longer comes into play. Only with the appropriate intrinsic interest can people with ADHD manage to “be able to do” what they want: by doing something that really really interests them. This mechanism explains well why extrinsic motivation (external pressure) does not help if something is not interesting enough. External pressure can do a lot - but it does not make dopamine receptors grow. From this perspective, ADHD could also be defined as an extreme narrowing of interests.
              And yet this is not a justification that your ADHD is not that bad, you just haven’t found what interests you.
      • Secondary employment
        • Knit
        • Draw
        • Listen to music
          • Some people have to “do” something on the side in order to be able to concentrate. This relieves inner tension. The secondary activity serves to optimize arousal. This is not a sign of disinterest or disrespect, but a means of increasing attention and concentration
  • Reduce distraction

    • Avoiding situations that are too loud, hectic, stressful and intense.
      • If you are sensitive to stress, you should avoid stress-inducing situations. This obvious-sounding fact is surprisingly often disregarded, whether due to a lack of knowledge or a guilty conscience. It’s like the temperature: you shouldn’t be cold when the thermometer says so, but when you’re cold:
      • Brightness
        • Lower the roller shutter
      • Temperature
        • Regulate according to your own needs
      • Reduce noise / voices / ..
        • Very quiet surroundings
        • Earplugs
        • Noise protection headphones
      • Own workspace150
        • No open-plan office!
        • No through room!
        • No open office!
      • Mails
        • Restrict retrieval to certain times
        • Deactivate pop-ups for incoming messages
        • Mails and other messages on cell phone only visible after active retrieval, not automatically on screen
      • Seat alignment at the workplace
        • (Closed) door in view
        • No windows in the back
        • Hide events in the room / in the window in the line of vision using curtains / transparent privacy film
        • Plenty of daylight151
        • Closed room
  • Optimize / adapt learning methods

    • Short learning sections with frequent breaks
    • E.g: Learning vocabulary;
      • Max. 10 pieces, as often as necessary until they fit securely, only then more
      • Use all senses: read quietly, read aloud, copy, etc.
      • Further vocabulary only after a break
    • Walk while learning
      uniform movement significantly optimizes receptivity in some people; movement reduces stress and increases neurotrophic factors in the brain that are necessary for neuroplasticity (formation of new synapses, learning)
    • 30 minutes of physically intensive exercise before learning (esp. ADHD-HI)
    • Suitable working methods
      • Independence
        for interesting activities, some people with ADHD-HI do better as self-employed persons than as employees, because intrinsic motivation optimizes arousal
        for less interesting activities, however, this would be rather disadvantageous because the individual’s own drive/structure is too low
      • Interesting activity
        The lack of extrinsic motivation makes it many times more important for persons with ADHD to find a task that is really exciting for them than for people without ADHD
      • ADHD-I: structured work tasks, clear instructions, tight controls
        Example:
        One person with ADHD retired at the age of 50 after a glittering career in the US Marines. He couldn’t cope in civilian life and failed. A year after leaving, he was diagnosed with ADHD.
      • A well-structured daily routine with regular alternation of activity and relaxation can support stabilization of the noradrenaline balance through self-activation (see below: take enough breaks)
  • Avoid / eliminate sources of stress

    • Even in the case of personality disorders, a long-term study (n = 733) surprisingly found a reduction in symptoms within 2 years for a period of more than 12 months in more than 50% of people with ADHD. In the case of borderline, this was observed in 10% of people with ADHD within 6 months, usually after massively stressful current life circumstances (stressful relationship) were eliminated. Nevertheless, significant diagnostic criteria remained very constant (more so than with severe depression), but they no longer reached the required severity for a diagnosis.152
  • Promote stress reduction

    • Just one hour longer sleep reduces morning cortisol levels by 21%153154
    • For sleep disorders:
      • Shift your sleep rhythm backwards
        Postpone falling asleep and getting up
        This could be worth a try for people with ADHD with high stress levels immediately on waking (e.g. anxiety)
        Early awakening correlates with high cortisol levels153154
      • More about sleep problems here
  • Moving to a low-stress environment

    • People who live in poor neighborhoods are said to have a higher body weight due to stress than people who live in more affluent neighborhoods.
      • When moving house, the body weight adapts to the new environment.155
      • This could be interpreted as a consequence of a stress response or stress reduction, but can also be understood as an adaptation to the main environment.

1.7. Sleep problem therapy (+)

  • Sleep problems should be treated with special priority in ADHD, as they can exacerbate ADHD symptoms as a vicious cycle and ADHD symptoms can cause sleep problems.
  • Sleep reduces the stress hormone cortisol. 1 hour longer sleep improves cortisol reduction by 21 %153
    All ADHD symptoms are also stress symptoms.
  • On possible measures to improve sleep and on sleeping pills specifically for ADHD:
    Sleep problems with ADHD

1.8. Nutrition and diet

Food intolerances address the stress regulation systems just as much as psychological stress or illness.
There are no specific foods that trigger ADHD. However, if there is an individual food intolerance, this can exacerbate an existing ADHD (as well as other mental disorders) because it represents an additional source of stress/strain for the organism. Dietary treatment of an existing food intolerance therefore contributes to an improvement in ADHD symptoms. The average Effect size is approx. 0.25.

There is also evidence that omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids can support the treatment of ADHD. However, this does not apply to all persons with ADHD and the Effect size is so small that this can only be recommended as an augmentation (supplement) to a treatment with a strong effect.
For more information, visit Nutrition and diet for ADHD and at ⇒ Effect size of different forms of treatment for ADHD.

1.8.1. Reasonable breakfast

One study found that 47% of students with ADHD and 33% of students without ADHD regularly did not eat a balanced breakfast. One hour after eating a balanced breakfast, both groups showed improvements in 4 cognitive areas.156

1.8.2. Drink plenty

Even though thirst is not described as a typical ADHD symptom, increased thirst and therefore increased water intake are frequently observed symptoms of stress.157 As stress aims to increase blood pressure in order to optimally prepare the body for fight or flight, increased fluid intake is an immediately useful tool.158 Fluid intake significantly reduces the stress response.159

1.9. Take enough breaks

  • Breaks are not just about recovering and letting the amount of stimuli you have been exposed to flow away:
    A clearly structured daily routine, in which activity and breaks alternate sensibly, can train the noradrenergic system and normalize the production of noradrenaline.160
  • This follows on from Scheidtmann’s suggestion that noradrenergic drugs (e.g. antidepressants) do not help with motor rehabilitation if they are used as long-term medication, as tricyclic antidepressants permanently stimulate the noradrenergic receptors and this leads to a loss of receptor sensitivity (especially with regard to learning processes).161
    This is consistent with the experience of using noradrenergic tricyclic antidepressants for ADHD. It is often reported that there is a very good response at the beginning, but that this diminishes with continued medication.
  • Taking breaks can counteract the hyperactivity of ADHD.150

1.10. Therapy computer games

In recent years, the topic of computer games for therapeutic use has come into scientific focus.
In principle, ADHD symptoms should be able to be improved by therapy computer games, e.g. attention,162

A therapeutic computer game has already been approved by the FDA for ADHD.

1.10.1. EndeavorRx

In June 2020, the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) approved the first ever video game that can be prescribed by a doctor. It is used to treat ADHD.

180 children between the ages of 8 and 12 played EndeavorRx for 25 minutes 5 days a week for 4 weeks, 168 children played a game other than placebo. The mean change (SD) from baseline in the TOVA-API was 0.93 in the treatment group and 0.03 in the control group.163 The fact that the study was sponsored by the software manufacturer is cause for skepticism. On the other hand, Faraone, one of the authors, is a very renowned scientist in the field of ADHD and The Lancet is a very renowned scientific journal.
A preliminary study also found evidence of a positive effect.164

The manufacturer describes further:

“EndeavourRx was granted clearance based on data from five clinical trials involving more than 600 children diagnosed with ADHD, including a prospective randomized controlled trial published in the Lancet Digital Health Journal, which showed that EndeavourRx improved objective measures of attention in children with ADHD. After four weeks of EndeavourRx treatment, one-third of the children no longer had a measurable attention deficit on at least one measure of objective attention. In addition, about half of the parents noted a clinically meaningful change in their child’s daily impairments after one month of treatment with EndeavourRx. This increased to 68% after a second month of treatment. The improvement in ADHD-HI impairment after one month of treatment with EndeavourRx was maintained for up to one month.”165

Another study, which is probably still ongoing, is investigating the effectiveness of the game over a longer application period of 2 months and the extent to which improvements persist after the end of treatment.

1.10.2. Plan-It Commander

The therapy computer game “Plan-It Commander” was/is developed by the authors of the studies mentioned below,166 so that the assessment of its effectiveness by independent studies remains to be seen. The symptoms that are said to have been improved in non-blinded studies are

  • Time management (parent assessment)167
  • Responsibility (parent assessment)167
  • Working memory (parent assessment)167
  • Planning and Organizational Skills (Parent Assessment)168 in girls overall and in boys with high Disorder of Social Behavior and low Hyperactivity.

1.11.3. RECOGNeyes

A small study found that people with ADHD who controlled the game RECOGNeyes with their eyes showed improvements in terms of

  • Impulsiveness
  • Response time
  • Fixation gaze control

while the control group, who controlled the game with the mouse, showed no improvement.169

1.10.4. Empowered Brain

A very small preliminary study showed that the higher their ADHD symptoms were, the better people with ADHD completed the game parts of Empowered Brain.170 The software appears to be developed more from a diagnostic perspective.

1.10.5. AR-Therapist: Augmented Reality - Behavioral Therapy - Game Concept

One study describes a concept of an augmented reality game for the purpose of behavioral therapy for ADHD, including measurement of ADHD-relevant parameters.171

1.10.6. The Secret Trail of Moon

A report describes the development of this game for ADHD treatment.172

1.10.7. Computer therapy games for other mental disorders

Some therapy games are known for other therapeutic goals, e.g:

  • Nevermind173
    • Stress
    • Measured stress (anxiety, trauma responses) makes playing conditions more difficult
    • No “official” medical application
    • Is controlled by biofeedback
  • Elude174
    • Depression
    • Elude aims to raise awareness and provide information about depression. It is intended to be used in a clinical context as part of psycho-education to improve the understanding of friends and relatives about people suffering from depression, about what people with ADHD are going through.
  • Treasure hunt175176
    • Anxiety, aggression, depression
    • Created specifically for therapeutic purposes
      • Evaluated on 200 children by 41 therapists
      • Supports the therapeutic work
    • For children from 9 to 13 years
    • Goals:
      • Learn to distinguish between thoughts, feelings and behavior
      • Replace negative thought patterns with positive ones
  • Depression Quest177
    • Depression
    • In a selectable adventure, the player as a depressive tries to balance the illness, job, relationships and even treatment.
  • Actual Sunlight178
    • Depression
    • A short interactive story about love and depression.
    • Not suitable for children
  • Sym179
    • Social phobia is addressed in this game
  • Rage Control180
    • Aggression
    • Developed by the Boston Children’s Hospital
    • Uses active biofeedback
  • Boson X
    • Depression
    • Commercial, non-therapy-oriented game
    • Whether this reduces the brooding phases in people with ADHD is disputed181182
  • Tetris
    • Trauma prevention
    • Non-therapy-oriented play
    • Use within the first 6 hours after a potentially traumatizing experience, after players were asked to recall the event, reduced risk of traumatization183
      • According to our (unverified) hypothesis, however, any mental activity and any media consumption that offers a light (!) mental activity (entertainment programs, entertainment films without dramas, light video games without social or violent components) could be suitable as trauma prophylaxis, provided they are used before the first sleep after the event. Of course, the content must not be thematically related to the event.
        According to our idea, the potentially traumatizing experiences in working and short-term memory are (at least partially) “overwritten” or “relativized” by subsequent “light” media consumption before they can be transferred to long-term memory via the hippocampus during sleep. Against this background, it could be beneficial to delay the first sleep after a potentially traumatizing event for as long as possible, to promote an abundant consumption of less significant media and, if necessary, to give medication that reduces the activity of the hippocampus.

1.11. Computer-based training programs

A meta-analysis of 31 studies with n = 2,169 subjects found improvements through digital forms of treatment with regard to184

  • Inattention (Effect size ES -0.20)
  • Response time for the continuous power task (CPT) (ES -0.40)
  • impulsive hyperactivity (ES -0.07)
  • Executive functions improved (ES 0.71)
  • Working memory improved (ES 0.48)

1.11.1. Computer-aided cognitive training

A computer-based cognitive training program improved focused attention and working memory in some of the test subjects (responders) better than conventional training. ADHD-I and ADHD-C benefited more than ADHD-HI.185

1.11.2. Web-based support / app-based support

A meta-analysis found 10 studies, 6 of which showed a positive effect of web-based support tools for young people with ADHD. The 4 studies that did not find a positive benefit related to apps.186

1.12. Chess training / Go training / Board games

A small study found an improvement in ADHD symptoms related to IQ after 11 weeks of chess training.187 Effect size was 0.85 when assessed by the parents. However, a parent-only assessment should always be treated with caution.
Another study found a comparable effect of GO, whereby inattention was improved, but not hyperactivity.188 The results of further studies could not be converted into Effect sizes.189190

1.13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation / transcranial direct current stimulation (o/+)

Various studies have looked at the effect of transcranial stimulation on ADHD.191192193
Transcranial direct current stimulation was rated better than repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a review.194

According to the majority opinion, there are predominantly indications of a positive effect.195196197198199200201
A meta-analysis found a significant positive effect in 8 (n = 133) of 13 studies (n = 308) rather in children and adolescents for inattention, impulsivity and general symptom levels, with a delayed onset of effect for hyperactivity.202 Another meta-analysis found significant improvements in attention, inhibition, working memory and brain connectivity in 11 studies.203
Studies found improvements through transcranial stimulation in relation to:

  • fewer omission errors in people with ADHD, along with an improvement in P 300 amplitude204
  • Improvements in ADHD, which were further enhanced by a combination with cognitive training205
  • Hyperactivity
    • Hyperactivity improved, but not attention (individual case of an adult with ADHD)206207
    • Hyperactivity/impulsivity improved at home208
    • 1 Hz rTMS over the left dlPFC improved hyperactivity/impulsivity (and inattention) in children with ADHD209, unlike 10 Hz stimulation of the right dlPFC, which did not improve ADHD symptoms compared to sham stimulation210
  • Attention
    • 1 Hz rTMS over the left dlPFC improved inattention (and hyperactivity/impulsivity) in children with ADHD209, unlike 10 Hz stimulation of the right dlPFC, which did not improve ADHD symptoms compared to sham stimulation210
    • Attention improved without improvement in mood, anxiety or hyperactivity in adults with ADHD211
    • Attention improved, but not overall ADHD scores in children and adolescents with ADHD212
    • Improved inattention in the school context208
  • oppositional defiant behavior208
  • Risk assessment and reward discounting213
  • Working memory
    • through optimized high-resolution tACS with a frequency of 5 Hz above the left DLPFC214

Other sources report mixed results.215216217218 One study found no improvement with transcranial direct current treatment over the left dorsolateral PFC.219

Several studies found evidence of increased (extracellular) dopamine levels in the striatum during or after TMS application.220221 The increase corresponded to that seen with the administration of D-amphetamine.222

1.14. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

TCM usually combines various treatment methods, just like Western “multimodal” therapy. These include herbal treatments, which can be assumed to intervene in the neurotransmitter structure in the same way as conventional medication. The risk lies in the limited knowledge of the pathways, side effects and cross-effects with conventional medication.
A meta-analysis found a surprisingly good effect of TCM on ADHD (as good or better than MPH), but at the same time poor to very poor quality of the individual studies, including a risk of considerable bias, which is why TCM cannot yet be recommended as a treatment for ADHD.22313

1.15. Light therapy

A very small study with n = 29 adults found positive effects of early morning light therapy in the fall/winter months on objective and subjective ADHD symptoms, mood and a shift in the circadian rhythm.224 The shift in the circadian rhythm appeared to have the greatest influence on the improvement of ADHD symptoms. Another, even smaller study on 16 adults came to similar conclusions.225
A third placebo-controlled study comparing the circadian rhythm with melatonin or melatonin plus light therapy also found that light therapy (here: as an addition to treatment with melatonin) could shift the circadian rhythm forward and that this had positive effects on ADHD symptoms. Melatonin alone had a stronger effect than light therapy, light therapy improved the result of melatonin treatment.226
A review confirmed these results.227

1.16. White noise

People with ADHD who heard white noise during cognitive tasks performed better.
Moderate noise facilitates stimulus discrimination and cognitive performance (stochastic resonance). Computational modeling showed that more noise is required in ADHD for stochastic resonance to occur in dopamine-deficient neural systems. This prediction is supported by empirical data.228229230231232
A meta-analysis found stable results showing a slight improvement in ADHD with white or pink noise.233

1.17. Trigeminal stimulation

Initial positive results have been found for trigeminal stimulation.234 The Effect size is said to have been 0.5.235 Trigeminal stimulation is said to improve executive dysfunction (organizational problems) in children with ADHD.236
A first device for trigeminal stimulation (Monarch eTNS System) has been approved by the FDA. In a double-blind placebo study, the device significantly improved ADHD symptoms in children between 8 and 12 years of age within 4 weeks.237

However, it remains to be seen whether neurostimulation can be reliably used as a treatment tool for ADHD and whether the improvements continue after treatment has ended.238

1.18. Breathing techniques

Breathing techniques outside of the mindfulness approach (see above) are not suitable for treating ADHD symptoms in general.
However, certain breathing techniques are suitable for some individual symptoms associated with ADHD, which is why we would like to mention them here.
The sympathetic nervous system dominates during inhalation and the parasympathetic nervous system dominates during exhalation. A different emphasis on inhaling or exhaling can therefore have an effect on the distribution of dominance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Breathing techniques (in more specific forms) can be helpful in relation to239

  • Sleep problems
  • Anxiety and panic states
  • Depression
  • increased blood pressure
  • reduced blood pressure
  • Sensation of cold

1.19. Therapeutic approaches for ADHD whose effect is not proven

  • Occupational therapy
    The effectiveness of occupational therapy for ADHD is limited to the treatment of fine motor skills in preparation for school.240
    A study reports positive effects of equine-assisted occupational therapy for schoolchildren with ADHD.241
  • Hemencephalography training
    Effect not yet recognized, initial studies.191
  • Self-instructions
    Effect is disputed.242
  • listen to (classical) music to improve your mood
    • One study found that listening to Mozart for 10 minutes (Mozart piano sonata for four hands, KV 440) improved the mood of people with ADHD as well as people without ADHD, in contrast to subjects who listened to 10 minutes of silence.243 This does not prove an ADHD-specific treatment method.
    • However, music seems to be helpful for ADHD.244
  • App-supported attention and organization training
    • One study reports that cell phone app-based training in attention and organization led to relevant improvements in a third of adults with ADHD.245
    • A meta-analysis from 2019 found no further studies on the treatment of ADHD using specific apps246
  • Organizational skills training
    • In the case of SCT, training in organizational skills did not improve SCT symptoms from the perspective of the people with ADHD themselves. Only from the parents’ perspective were there improvements with an Effect size of approx. 0.5.247
      Parent assessments are highly susceptible to being biased towards desired outcomes. This bias is all the stronger the greater the effort invested.
  • Homework support
    • In the case of SCT, homework support did not improve SCT symptoms from the perspective of the people with ADHD themselves. Only from the parents’ perspective were there improvements with an Effect size of approx. 0.5.247
      Parent assessments are highly susceptible to being biased towards desired outcomes. This bias is all the stronger the greater the effort invested.
  • Social behavior training
    • A meta-analysis found no proven effect of non-drug training methods (coaching, etc.) in terms of improving social behavior towards peers.248
    • A meta-analysis found weak evidence of benefits of peer-based interventions for ADHD,13 which are primarily aimed at strengthening social support among peers.
    • Another meta-analysis of 15 studies found evidence of moderate effectiveness of social skills training in children with ADHD.249
  • Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation
    • One report cites transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation as a possible treatment for ADHD.250
  • Acupuncture
    • One meta-analysis reported a high efficacy of acupuncture on hyperactivity.251 Another meta-analysis of 5 studies found no robust evidence for an improvement in ADHD through acupuncture.252 Another meta-analysis intends to investigate the effect of acupuncture for the treatment of ADHD.253 A meta-analysis of 14 studies with 1185 patients found that acupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medication supported the improvement of behavioral problems, learning problems, hyperactivity-impulsivity and hyperactivity symptoms in ADHD patients and as a stand-alone treatment improved learning problems, hyperactivity-impulsivity and hyperactivity symptoms in ADHD patients. The risk of bias in the included studies was generally concerning, so the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for ADHD is currently too limited to recommend its use.254
    • The effectiveness of acupuncture is controversial. There are no conclusive medical explanatory models to date.
      However, two German double-blind studies, which conclude that so far only a placebo effect can be proven for acupuncture, show in the figures that acupuncture achieved 20% better results compared to sham acupuncture.255. 256 Other studies report an effect that goes beyond placebo.257258259260
  • Homeopathy
    • A meta-analysis reports benefits of additional individual homeopathic treatment for ADHD.261 An RCT also reports symptom improvements through homeopathy, but only in parent reports.262
  • Fidgets
    • One study observed significant improvement in sustained attention in students with ADHD who used Fidgets during class.263
  • Random Noise
    • Random Noise treatment uses any form of energy (e.g. light, mechanical, electrical or acoustic energy) with unpredictable intensity to stimulate the brain and sensory receptors with the aim of improving sensory, motor and cognitive functions. Random Noise treatment originally used mechanical sounds for auditory and cutaneous stimuli. Today, electrical energy is increasingly used to stimulate the brain or skin. Recent evidence shows that transcranial random noise stimulation can increase corticospinal excitability, improve cognitive/motor performance and have positive after-effects on a behavioral and psychological level.264
  • Spinal manipulation / spinal mobilization
    • A meta-analysis found no evidence of effectiveness of spinal manipulation/mobilization for ADHD265
  • Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS)
    • Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a newly developed, non-invasive procedure. Stimulation of the cutaneous receptive field of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the outer ear is intended to activate the vagal connections to the central and peripheral nervous system.266
  • Ultrasound stimulation with low intensity
    • Low intensity ultrasound stimulation has been shown to improve abnormal brain function in SHR. We do not have studies on clinical ADHD treatment use in humans.267
  • Quiet Eye Training268
  • Animal-assisted therapy269

1.20. Therapeutic approaches that are definitely ineffective

  • Phosphate diet (oats)
    Find out more at Nutrition and diet for ADHD
  • Certain foods / food additives certain substances as sole causal cause of ADHD
    However, food intolerances in general (individually intolerable substances) can increase the stress level to such an extent that latent mental disorders (e.g. ADHD) can appear or existing disorders can be exacerbated.
    Find out more at Nutrition and diet for ADHD

2. Multimodal therapy approach

Multimodal therapy is a combination of relevant treatment options. A combination of medication, psychotherapy and possibly other treatment options is used to treat ADHD. Multimodal treatment improves ADHD symptoms.270 However, this is not surprising. Only a comparison with purely psychotherapeutic and drug treatment would be relevant.

In adults with ADHD, combined treatment with medication and cognitive behavioral therapy was only superior to medication alone after the first 3 months. There was no difference after 6 and 9 months.271

3. Treatment concepts, treatment manuals, guidelines

Source: Schmidt, Petermann272

  • Group therapy manual “Psychotherapy of ADHD in adults” (Hesslinger et al., 2004)
    Adaptation of the Dialectical Behavioral Borderline Therapy concept to ADHD
  • “Treatment manual for ADHD in adulthood” (Lauth, Minsel, 2009)
    For individuals and groups
  • “Psychoeducation and Coaching Manual ADHD in Adulthood” (D’Amelio et al., 2009),
    Practical guidance on the treatment of ADHD and family groups
  • “Training for ADD in adulthood (TADSE)” (Baer & Kirsch, 2010)
  • “Cognitive behavioral therapy program for adult ADHD” (Safren et al., 2009)
    Cognitive techniques for individual therapy
  • Interdisciplinary evidence- and consensus-based (S3) guideline “ADHD in children, adolescents and adults”273

4. Subtype-specific treatment

To date, few treatment concepts are known that differentiate between the various subtypes of ADHD - ADHD-HI and ADHD-C (with hyperactivity) on the one hand and ADHD-I (without hyperactivity) on the other.

In our opinion, ADHD-HI and ADHD-C suffer from the fact that the stress system of the HPA axis is permanently overactivated and is not shut down again due to an insufficient cortisol response to acute stress or insufficient addressability of the glucocorticoid receptors, while the ADHD-I subtype suffers from an over-intense neurotransmitter and stress hormone response to acute stress, which leads to a regular shutdown of the HPA axis due to the high cortisol response, but at the same time shuts down the PFC due to the parallel excessive release of noradrenaline, thereby triggering mental blocks and an inability to make decisions.

In our opinion, mindfulness is particularly important in ADHD-HI in order to achieve therapeutic ability in the first place. The permanently elevated stress level in ADHD-HI (with hyperactivity) is so strongly increased that mindfulness (MBCT, MBSR, meditation, yoga …) is downright aversive, which correlates with an inability to recover.

5. Multi-generational treatment for ADHD

Treating the children alone overlooks the fact that the influence of people with ADHD has a significant impact on the development of the children.
Treatment and support for mothers with ADHD showed positive Consequences for the children, whereby a higher intensity of treatment for mothers with ADHD (here: with DBT) only showed a temporary advantage for the children compared to less intensive treatment.274

Children of mothers with high neuroticism and low conscientiousness should benefit more from behavioral therapies than other children. In contrast, children of mothers with medium neuroticism and medium conscientiousness or low neuroticism and high conscientiousness should benefit more from a multimodal treatment of therapy and medication or from medication alone than from behavioral therapy alone.275


  1. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 75, deutsch

  2. Catalá-López, Hutton, Núñez-Beltrán, Page, Ridao, Macías Saint-Gerons, Catalá, Tabarés-Seisdedos, Moher (2017): The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials. PLoS One. 2017 Jul 12;12(7):e0180355. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180355. PMID: 28700715; PMCID: PMC5507500. METASTUDY

  3. Sibley MH, Bruton AM, Zhao X, Johnstone JM, Mitchell J, Hatsu I, Arnold LE, Basu HH, Levy L, Vyas P, Macphee F, Gonzalez ES, Kelley M, Jusko ML, Bolden CR, Zulauf-McCurdy C, Manzano M, Torres G (2023): Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2023 Mar 9:S2352-4642(22)00381-9. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(22)00381-9. PMID: 36907194. REVIEW

  4. Sadr-Salek S, Costa AP, Steffgen G (2023): Psychological Treatments for Hyperactivity and Impulsivity in Children with ADHD: A Narrative Review. Children (Basel). 2023 Sep 27;10(10):1613. doi: 10.3390/children10101613. PMID: 37892276; PMCID: PMC10605405. REVIEW

  5. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 53

  6. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 54

  7. Mehren, Reichert, Coghill, Müller, Braun, Philipsen (2020): Physical exercise in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – evidence and implications for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul. 2020 Jan 6;7:1. doi: 10.1186/s40479-019-0115-2. eCollection 2020.

  8. Choi, Han, Kang, Jung, Renshaw (2015): Aerobic exercise and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: brain research. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Jan;47(1):33-9. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000373. PMID: 24824770; PMCID: PMC5504911.

  9. Hoza, Smith, Shoulberg, Linnea, Dorsch, Blazo, Alerding, McCabe (2015): A randomized trial examining the effects of aerobic physical activity on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in young children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015 May;43(4):655-67. doi: 10.1007/s10802-014-9929-y. PMID: 25201345; PMCID: PMC4826563. n = 202

  10. Mercurio, Amanullah, Gill, Gjelsvik (2019): Children With ADHD Engage in Less Physical Activity. J Atten Disord. 2019 Dec 14:1087054719887789. doi: 10.1177/1087054719887789. n = 34.675

  11. Berger, Müller, Brähler, Philipsen, de Zwaan (2014): Association of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with symptoms of excessive exercising in an adult general population sample. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Sep 12;14:250. doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0250-7. n = 1.615

  12. Villa-González, Villalba-Heredia, Crespo, Del Valle, Olmedillas (2020): A systematic review of acute exercise as a coadjuvant treatment of ADHD in young people. Psicothema. 2020 Feb;32(1):67-74. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2019.211. PMID: 31954418. REVIEW

  13. Shrestha, Lautenschleger, Soares (2020): Non-pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a review. Transl Pediatr. 2020 Feb;9(Suppl 1):S114-S124. doi: 10.21037/tp.2019.10.01. PMID: 32206589; PMCID: PMC7082245. REVIEW

  14. Zang (2019): Impact of physical exercise on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: Evidence through a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Nov;98(46):e17980. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017980. n = 574

  15. Cerrillo-Urbina, García-Hermoso, Sánchez-López, Pardo-Guijarro, Santos Gómez, Martínez-Vizcaíno (2015): The effects of physical exercise in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Child Care Health Dev. 2015 Nov;41(6):779-88. doi: 10.1111/cch.12255. n = 249 REVIEW

  16. Sun F, Fang Y, Chan CKM, Poon ETC, Chung LMY, Or PPL, Chen Y, Cooper SB (2023): Structured physical exercise interventions and children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Care Health Dev. 2023 Jul 11. doi: 10.1111/cch.13150. PMID: 37433667. METASTUDY

  17. Li D, Li L, Zang W, Wang D, Miao C, Li C, Zhou L, Yan J (2023): Effect of physical activity on attention in school-age children with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Front Physiol. 2023 Jul 27;14:1189443. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1189443. PMID: 37576338; PMCID: PMC10415683. METASTUDY

  18. Donath C, Atzmüller L, Florack J, Engel C, Luttenberger K (2023): Wirkung von Sportinterventionen auf die psychische Gesundheit von Jugendlichen: Ein systematisches Review mit Praxisbeispiel Boulderpsychotherapie [The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Adolescent Mental Health: A Systematic Review with Practical Example]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2023 Dec 8. German. doi: 10.1024/1422-4917/a000960. PMID: 38063057. METASTUDY

  19. Hattabi, Bouallegue, Ben Yahya, Bouden (2019): Rehabilitation of ADHD children by sport intervention: a Tunisian experience. Tunis Med. 2019 Jul;97(7):874-881. n = 40

  20. Ji H, Wu S, Won J, Weng S, Lee S, Seo S, Park JJ (2023): The Effects of Exergaming on Attention in Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Serious Games. 2023 May 9;11:e40438. doi: 10.2196/40438. PMID: 37159253.

  21. Chan YS, Jang JT, Ho CS (2021):Effects of physical exercise on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biomed J. 2022 Apr;45(2):265-270. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.11.011. PMID: 34856393; PMCID: PMC9250090. REVIEW

  22. Christiansen, Beck, Bilenberg, Wienecke, Astrup, Lundbye-Jensen (2019): Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children and Adolescents with ADHD: Potential Mechanisms and Evidence-based Recommendations. J Clin Med. 2019 Jun 12;8(6). pii: E841. doi: 10.3390/jcm8060841.

  23. Ashdown-Franks, Firth, Carney, Carvalho, Hallgren, Koyanagi, Rosenbaum, Schuch, Smith, Solmi, Vancampfort, Stubbs (2019): Exercise as Medicine for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-review of the Benefits for Neuropsychiatric and Cognitive Outcomes. Sports Med. 2019 Sep 20. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01187-6.

  24. Lambez, Harwood-Gross, Golumbic, Rassovsky (2019): Non-pharmacological interventions for cognitive difficulties in ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2019 Oct 12;120:40-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.10.007. REVIEW

  25. Chang, Labban, Gapin, Etnier (2012): The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res. 2012 May 9;1453:87-101. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068.

  26. Robinson, Eggleston, Bucci (2021): Physical exercise and catecholamine reuptake inhibitors affect orienting behavior and social interaction in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci. 2021 Oct;135(5):591-600. doi: 10.1037/bne0000434. PMID: 34582222.

  27. Hattabi S, Forte P, Kukic F, Bouden A, Have M, Chtourou H, Sortwell A (2022): A Randomized Trial of a Swimming-Based Alternative Treatment for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 4;19(23):16238. doi: 10.3390/ijerph192316238. PMID: 36498313.

  28. Mehren, Özyurt, Thiel, Brandes, Lam, Philipsen (2019): Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Response Inhibition in Adult Patients with ADHD. Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 27;9(1):19884. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56332-y.

  29. Wang M, Yang X, Yu J, Zhu J, Kim HD, Cruz A (2023): Effects of Physical Activity on Inhibitory Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Jan 6;20(2):1032. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20021032. PMID: 36673793; PMCID: PMC9859519. METASTUDIE

  30. Wang YH, Gau SF, Yang LK, Chang JC, Cheong PL, Kuo HI (2024): Acute aerobic exercise at different intensities modulates inhibitory control and cortical excitability in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Asian J Psychiatr. 2024 Mar 7:103993. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2024.103993. PMID: 38485649.

  31. Song Y, Fan B, Wang C, Yu H (2023): Meta-analysis of the effects of physical activity on executive function in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PLoS One. 2023 Aug 17;18(8):e0289732. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289732. PMID: 37590250. METASTUDY

  32. Grassmann, Alves, Santos-Galduróz, Galduróz (2017): Possible Cognitive Benefits of Acute Physical Exercise in Children With ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2017 Mar;21(5):367-371. doi: 10.1177/1087054714526041.

  33. McMorris, Hale (2012): Differential effects of differing intensities of acute exercise on speed and accuracy of cognition: a meta-analytical investigation. Brain Cogn. 2012 Dec;80(3):338-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2012.09.001.

  34. Liang X, Qiu H, Wang P, Sit CHP. (2022): The impacts of a combined exercise on executive function in children with ADHD: A randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2022 May 25. doi: 10.1111/sms.14192. PMID: 35611615. n = 120

  35. Huang H, Jin Z, He C, Guo S, Zhang Y, Quan M (2023): Chronic Exercise for Core Symptoms and Executive Functions in ADHD: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2023 Jan 1;151(1):e2022057745. doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-057745. PMID: 36510746.

  36. Ashdown-Franks, Firth, Carney, Carvalho, Hallgren, Koyanagi, Rosenbaum, Schuch, Smith, Solmi, Vancampfort, Stubbs (2019): Exercise as Medicine for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-review of the Benefits for Neuropsychiatric and Cognitive Outcomes. Sports Med. 2019 Sep 20. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01187-6. REVIEW

  37. Ashdown-Franks, Firth, Carney, Carvalho, Hallgren, Koyanagi, Rosenbaum, Schuch, Smith, Solmi, Vancampfort, Stubbs (2019): Exercise as Medicine for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Meta-review of the Benefits for Neuropsychiatric and Cognitive Outcomes. Sports Med. 2019 Sep 20. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01187-6. METASTUDIE

  38. Modell der stressregulativen Wirkweisen der körperlichen Aktivität nach Fuchs, Klaperski (2018): Stressregulation durch Sport und Bewegung. In Fuchs, Gerber (Hrsg.): Handbuch Stressregulation und Sport, S. 205–226

  39. Bieger (2011): Neurostress Guide, Seite 7

  40. Tsatsoulis, Fountoulakis (2006): The protective role of exercise on stress system dysregulation and comorbidities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1083:196-213.

  41. Beltrán-Carrillo, Tortosa-Martínez, Jennings, Sánchez (2013):. Contributions of a group-based exercise program for coping with fibromyalgia: a qualitative study giving voice to female patients. Women Health. 2013;53(6):612-29. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2013.819399. PMID: 23937732.

  42. Rimmele, Zellweger, Marti, Seiler, Mohiyeddini, Ehlert, Heinrichs (2007): Trained men show lower cortisol, heart rate and psychological responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 627–635. n = 44

  43. Simchen, Helga: http://helga-simchen.info/Thesen-zu-ADS; dort: was bewirken die Botenstoffe?

  44. Schultz W, Ruffieux A, Aebischer P (1983): The Activity of Pars Compacta Neurons of the Monkey Substantia Nigra

  45. Schultz W (1986): Activity of pars reticulata neurons of monkey substantia nigra in relation to motor, sensory, and complex events. J Neurophysiol. 1986 Apr;55(4):660-77. doi: 10.1152/jn.1986.55.4.660. PMID: 3701399.

  46. Kim, Heo, Kim, Ko, Lee, Kim, Kim, Kim, Ji, Kim, Shin, Choi, Kim (2011): Treadmill exercise and methylphenidate ameliorate symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through enhancing dopamine synthesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Oct 17;504(1):35-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.08.052. PMID: 21907264.

  47. Wigal, Emmerson, Gehricke, Galassetti (2013): Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2013 May;17(4):279-90. doi: 10.1177/1087054712454192.

  48. Ma (2008): Beneficial effects of moderate voluntary physical exercise and its biological mechanisms on brain health. Neurosci Bull. 2008 Aug;24(4):265-70. doi: 10.1007/s12264-008-0402-1.

  49. Werner, Fürster, Widmann, Pöss, Roggia, Hanhoun, Scharhag, Büchner, Meyer, Kindermann, Haendeler, Böhm, Laufs (2009): Physical exercise prevents cellular senescence in circulating leukocytes and in the vessel wall. Circulation. 2009 Dec 15;120(24):2438-47. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.861005.

  50. Pontzer (2017): The crown joules: energetics, ecology, and evolution in humans and other primates. Evol Anthropol. 2017 Jan;26(1):12-24. doi: 10.1002/evan.21513. PMID: 28233387.

  51. Pontzer, Wood (2021): Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale Societies. Annu Rev Nutr. 2021 Oct 11;41:363-385. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-111120-105520. PMID: 34138633.

  52. Gibbons (2022): The calorie counter. Science. 2022 Feb 18;375(6582):710-713. doi: 10.1126/science.ada1185. PMID: 35175814.

  53. Dugas, Harders, Merrill, Ebersole, Shoham, Rush, Assah, Forrester, Durazo-Arvizu, Luke (2011): Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):427-41. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.007278. PMID: 21159791; PMCID: PMC3021434. METASTUDIE

  54. Hinghofer-Szalkay: Energiestoffwechsel des Nervengewebes (Hirnstoffwechsel). Physiologie.cc, abgerufen 01.02.23

  55. Van Riper SM, Tempest GD, Piccirilli A, Ma Q, Reiss AL (2023): Aerobic Exercise, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Activity in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2023 Mar 6. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000003159. PMID: 36897828.

  56. Lam, Matthies, Graf, Colla, Jacob, Sobanski, Alm, Rösler, Retz, Retz-Junginger, Kis, Abdel-Hamid, Müller, Lücke, Huss, Jans, Berger, Tebartz van Elst, Philipsen; Comparison of Methylphenidate and Psychotherapy in Adult ADHD Study (COMPAS) Consortium (2019): Long-term Effects of Multimodal Treatment on Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: Follow-up Analysis of the COMPAS Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e194980. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4980.

  57. Gonda X, Balint S, Rethelyi JM, Dome P (2024): Settling a distracted globe: An overview of psychosocial and psychotherapeutic treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2024 Mar 14;83:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2024.03.002. PMID: 38490015. REVIEW

  58. Catalá-López, Hutton, Núñez-Beltrán, Page, Ridao, Macías Saint-Gerons, Catalá, Tabarés-Seisdedos, Moher (2017): The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials. PLoS One. 2017 Jul 12;12(7):e0180355. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180355. PMID: 28700715; PMCID: PMC5507500. METASTUDIE

  59. Poissant, Mendrek, Talbot, Khoury, Nolan (2019): Behavioral and Cognitive Impacts of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Behav Neurol. 2019 Apr 4;2019:5682050. doi: 10.1155/2019/5682050. eCollection 2019. n = 753 REVIEW

  60. Lin, Chadi, Shrier (2019): Mindfulness-based interventions for adolescent health. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2019 Apr 1. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000760.

  61. Jakobsen, Thomsen, Lemcke (2019): [Mindfulness as treatment for ADHD]. [Article in Danish] Ugeskr Laeger. 2019 Dec 30;182(1). pii: V08190426.

  62. Gotink, Meijboom, Vernooij, Smits, Hunink (2016): 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction induces brain changes similar to traditional long-term meditation practice – A systematic review; Brain Cogn. 2016 Oct;108:32-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.001. REVIEW

  63. Janssen, de Vries, Hepark, Speckens (2017): The Feasibility, Effectiveness, and Process of Change of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Adults With ADHD: A Mixed-Method Pilot Study.J Atten Disord. 2017 Aug 1:1087054717727350. doi: 10.1177/1087054717727350.

  64. Lee, Ma, Ho, Tsang, Zheng, Wu (2017): The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Attention on Individuals with ADHD: A Systematic Review. Hong Kong J Occup Ther. 2017 Dec;30(1):33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.hkjot.2017.05.001. REVIEW

  65. Janssen, Kan, Carpentier, Sizoo, Hepark, Schellekens, Donders, Buitelaar, Speckens (2018): Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy v. treatment as usual in adults with ADHD: a multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Psychol Med. 2018 Feb 28:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S0033291718000429., n = 120

  66. Schutte, Malouff (2013): A meta-analytic review of the effects of mindfulness meditation on telomerase activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Apr;42:45-8. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.017.

  67. Xue, Zhang, Huang (2019): A meta-analytic investigation of the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on ADHD symptoms. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(23):e15957. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015957.

  68. Nimmo-Smith, Merwood, Hank, Brandling, Greenwood, Skinner, Law, Patel, Rai (2020): Non-pharmacological interventions for adult ADHD: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2020 Feb 10:1-13. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720000069. PMID: 32036811. REVIEW

  69. Barkley (2018): Vortrag an der Universität Göteborg, ca. Minute 80

  70. McBride, Weinzimmer, La Buissonnière-Ariza, Schneider, Ehrenreich May, Lewin, McGuire , Goodman, Wood , Storch (2020): The Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Youth with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2020 Feb 5:10.1007/s10578-020-00961-2. doi: 10.1007/s10578-020-00961-2. PMID: 32026260. n = 104

  71. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 55

  72. López-Pinar, Martínez-Sanchís, Carbonell-Vayá, Sánchez-Meca, Fenollar-Cortés (2019): Efficacy of Nonpharmacological Treatments on Comorbid Internalizing Symptoms of Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. J Atten Disord. 2019 Jun 13:1087054719855685. doi: 10.1177/1087054719855685. REVIEW

  73. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 71

  74. Halmøy A, Ring AE, Gjestad R, Møller M, Ubostad B, Lien T, Munkhaugen EK, Fredriksen M (2022): Dialectical behavioral therapy-based group treatment versus treatment as usual for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Nov 28;22(1):738. doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-04356-6. PMID: 36443712; PMCID: PMC9706966.

  75. Meyer J, Zetterqvist V, Unenge Hallerbäck M, Ramklint M, Isaksson J. Moderators of long-term treatment outcome when comparing two group interventions for adolescents with ADHD: who benefits more from DBT-based skills training? BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 6;22(1):767. doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-04435-8. PMID: 36474201; PMCID: PMC9724371. n = 128

  76. Ponomarev R, Sklyar S, Krasilnikova V, Savina T (2023): Digital Cognitive Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Psycholinguist Res. 2023 Aug 6. doi: 10.1007/s10936-023-10003-2. PMID: 37544957.

  77. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 78

  78. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 46

  79. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 78 mwNw

  80. http://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/52694

  81. Amano, Toichi (2016): The Role of Alternating Bilateral Stimulation in Establishing Positive Cognition in EMDR Therapy: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. PLoS One. 2016 Oct 12;11(10):e0162735. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162735. eCollection 2016

  82. Guidetti C, Brogna P, Chieffo DPR, Turrini I, Arcangeli V, Rausa A, Bianchetti M, Rolleri E, Santomassimo C, Di Cesare G, Ducci G, Romeo DM, Brogna C (2023): Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a Possible Evidence-Based Rehabilitation Treatment Option for a Patient with ADHD and History of Adverse Childhood Experiences: A Case Report Study. J Pers Med. 2023 Jan 23;13(2):200. doi: 10.3390/jpm13020200. PMID: 36836434; PMCID: PMC9961224.

  83. Meise (2010): EMDR – heilsame Augenbewegungen; Psychologie heute, Juli 2010, S. 44 – 48

  84. Schubbe (2006): EMDR; auch erschienen in: Zobel, M. (Hg.), Traumatherapie – Eine Einführung. Bonn 2006, S. 86-111

  85. Böhm (2010/2012): Erfahrungen mit “SynestheticProcessing”/emoflex©, Heft 4/2010 „neuenAkzente“ des ADHS Deutschland e.V., insb. 2. Artikelhälfte

  86. Nimmo-Smith, Merwood, Hank, Brandling, Greenwood, Skinner, Law, Patel, Rai (2020): Non-pharmacological interventions for adult ADHD: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2020 Feb 10:1-13. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720000069. PMID: 32036811.

  87. Haft, Chen, Leblanc, Tencza, Hoeft (2019): Impact of mentoring on socio-emotional and mental health outcomes of youth with learning disabilities and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2019 Nov;24(4):318-328. doi: 10.1111/camh.12331.

  88. Fontes, Marinho, Carvalho, Rocha, Magalhães, Moura, Ribeiro, Velasques, Cagy, Gupta, Bastos, Teles, Teixeira (2020): Time estimation exposure modifies cognitive aspects and cortical activity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder adults. Int J Neurosci. 2020 Jan 13:1-21. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1715394. n = 22

  89. Krause, Krause (2014): ADHS im Erwachsenenalter, S. 108

  90. Sonuga-Barke, Brandeis, Cortese, Daley, Ferrin, Holtmann, Stevenson, Danckaerts, van der Oord, Döpfner, Dittmann, Simonoff, Zuddas, Banaschewski, Buitelaar, Coghill, Hollis, Konofal, Lecendreux, Wong, Sergeant, and European ADHD Guidelines Group (2013): Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments. American Journal of Psychiatry 2013 170:3, 275-289 REVIEW

  91. Woltering, Liu, Tannock (2019): Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity in the Brain After Working Memory Training in College Students With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Atten Disord. 2019 Oct 5:1087054719879487. doi: 10.1177/1087054719879487. n = 89

  92. Veloso, Vicente, Filipe (2020): Effectiveness of Cognitive Training for School-Aged Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Front Psychol. 2020 Jan 14;10:2983. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02983. PMID: 32010026; PMCID: PMC6971402. REVIEW

  93. Ackermann, Halfon, Fornari, Urben, Bader (2018): Cognitive Working Memory Training (CWMT) in adolescents suffering from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A controlled trial taking into account concomitant medication effects. Psychiatry Res. 2018 Jul 27;269:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.07.036. n = 60

  94. Capodieci, Re, Fracca, Borella, Carretti (2019): The efficacy of a training that combines activities on working memory and metacognition: Transfer and maintenance effects in children with ADHD and typical development. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2019 Aug 12:1-14. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2019.1651827.

  95. Jaquerod, Mesrobian, Villa, Bader, Lintas (2020): Early Attentional Modulation by Working Memory Training in Young Adult ADHD Patients during a Risky Decision-Making Task. Brain Sci. 2020 Jan 9;10(1):E38. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10010038. PMID: 31936483. n = 65

  96. Passarotti, Balaban, Colman, Katz, Trivedi, Liu, Langenecker (2020): A Preliminary Study on the Functional Benefits of Computerized Working Memory Training in Children With Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Front Psychol. 2020 Feb 5;10:3060. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03060. PMID: 32116872; PMCID: PMC7014966.

  97. Nejati V, Derakhshan Z, Mohtasham A (2023): The effect of comprehensive working memory training on executive functions and behavioral symptoms in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Asian J Psychiatr. 2023 Jan 17;81:103469. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2023.103469. PMID: 36669291. n = 30

  98. Roording-Ragetlie SL, Pieters S, Wennekers E, Klip H, Buitelaar J, Slaats-Willemse D (2023): Working memory training in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities, the role of coaching: A double-blind randomised controlled trial. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2023 Jun 14. doi: 10.1111/jir.13047. PMID: 37313626.

  99. Klingberg, Tamminga (2009): Working Memory Remediation and the D1 Receptor, THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY May 2009 Volume 166 Number 5

  100. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, Seiten 24 und 108 mit weiteren Nachweisen

  101. Dovis, Maric, Prins, Van der Oord (2019): Does executive function capacity moderate the outcome of executive function training in children with ADHD? Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2019 May 23. doi: 10.1007/s12402-019-00308-5.

  102. Rantanen, Vierikko, Eriksson, Nieminen (2019): Neuropsychological group rehabilitation on neurobehavioral comorbidities in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2019 Oct 20:106386. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.06.030.

  103. Halperin, Marks, Chacko, Bedard, O’Neill, Curchack-Lichtin, Bourchtein, Berwid (2019): Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills (TEAMS): a Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial of Preschool Youth with ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2019 Dec 13. doi: 10.1007/s10802-019-00610-w. n = 52

  104. Scionti, Cavallero, Zogmaister, Marzocchi (2020): Is Cognitive Training Effective for Improving Executive Functions in Preschoolers? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Psychol. 2020 Jan 10;10:2812. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02812. PMID: 31998168; PMCID: PMC6965160. REVIEW

  105. Simchen (2015): Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl., S. 196

  106. Nejati V, Fallah F, Raskin S (2022): Inhibitory Control Training Improves Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 6:13591045221144356. doi: 10.1177/13591045221144356. PMID: 36474404. n = 30

  107. Barranco-Ruiz, Etxabe, Ramírez-Vélez, Villa-González (2019): Interventions Based on Mind-Body Therapies for the Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Youth: A Systematic Review. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jun 30;55(7). pii: E325. doi: 10.3390/medicina55070325. REVIEW

  108. Lee, Ma, Ho, Tsang, Zheng, Wu (2017): The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Attention on Individuals with ADHD: A Systematic Review. Hong Kong J Occup Ther. 2017 Dec;30(1):33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.hkjot.2017.05.001. PMID: 30186078; PMCID: PMC6092011. METASTUDIE

  109. Oliva, Malandrone, di Girolamo, Mirabella, Colombi, Carletto, Ostacoli (2021): The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beyond core symptoms: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. J Affect Disord. 2021 Jun 5;292:475-486. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.068. PMID: 34146899. REVIEW

  110. Brown, Ryan (2003): The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848

  111. Evans, Baer, Segerstrom (2009): The effects of mindfulness and selfconsciousness on persistence. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(4), 379-382.

  112. Sirois, Tosti, (2012): Lost in the moment? An investigation of procrastination, mindfulness, and well-being; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 1-12

  113. Sirois, Pychyl, (2013): Procrastination and the Priority of Short-Term Mood Regulation: Consequences for Future Self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115-127. doi:10.1111/spc3.12011

  114. Ahmed Aboalola N (2023): The effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention on improving executive functions and reducing the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young children. Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2023 Apr 27:1-9. doi: 10.1080/21622965.2023.2203321. PMID: 37105569.

  115. Cruess, Antoni, Kumar, Ironson, McCabe, Fernandez, Fletcher, Schneiderman (1999): Cognitive-behavioral stress management buffers decreases in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and increases in the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and reduces mood disturbance and perceived stress among HIV-seropositive men, Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 24, Issue 5, 1999, Pages 537-549, ISSN 0306-4530, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(99)00010-4.

  116. Gabriely, Tarrasch, Velicki, Ovadia-Blechman (2020): The influence of mindfulness meditation on inattention and physiological markers of stress on students with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2020 May;100:103630. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103630. PMID: 32163834.

  117. Valero, Cebolla, Colomer (2021): Mindfulness Training for Children with ADHD and Their Parents: A Randomized Control Trial. J Atten Disord. 2021 Jun 30:10870547211027636. doi: 10.1177/10870547211027636. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34189992. n = 30

  118. Oliva, Malandrone, di Girolamo, Mirabella, Colombi, Carletto, Ostacoli (2021): The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beyond core symptoms: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. J Affect Disord. 2021 Sep 1;292:475-486. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.068. PMID: 34146899. METASTUDIE

  119. http://www.spektrum.de/lexikon/psychologie/attribution/1584

  120. http://www.spektrum.de/lexikon/psychologie/leistungsattribution/8702

  121. Daubenmier, Kristeller, Hecht (2011): Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study. In: J. Obes., 2011, Article ID 651936, doi:10.1155/2011/651936

  122. Hölzel, Hoge, Greve, Gard, Creswell, Brown, Feldman, Barrett,Schwartz, Vaitl, Lazara (2013): Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training; Neuroimage Clin. 2013; 2: 448–458; doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2013.03.011; PMCID: PMC3777795

  123. Moynihan, Chapman, Klorman, Krasner, Duberstein, Brown, Talbot (2013): Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction für ältere Erwachsene: Auswirkungen auf die exekutive Funktion, frontal alpha Asymmetrie und Immunfunktion.Neuropsychobiology. 2013; 68 (1): 34-43. doi: 10.1159 / 000350949.

  124. Lau, Leung, Chan, Wong, Leea (2015): Can the neural–cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?1,2,5,6 Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 16620. doi: 10.1038/srep16620; PMCID: PMC4649618; Achtung sehr kleines n = 21

  125. Huguet, Izaguirre Eguren, Miguel-Ruiz, Vall Vallés, Alda (2019): Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Mindfulness as a Useful Treatment Modality. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000682.

  126. Geurts, Schellekens, Janssen, Speckens (2020): Mechanisms of Change in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Adults With ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2020 Jan 6:1087054719896865. doi: 10.1177/1087054719896865. n = 93

  127. Kabat-Zinn (2007): Gesund durch Meditation

  128. Cohen, Harvey, Shields, Shields, Rashedi, Tancredi, Angkustsiri, Hansen, Schweitzer (2018): Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Mar 13. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000552.

  129. Cerrillo-Urbina, García-Hermoso, Sánchez-López, Pardo-Guijarro, Santos Gómez, Martínez-Vizcaíno (2015): The effects of physical exercise in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Child Care Health Dev. 2015 Nov;41(6):779-88. doi: 10.1111/cch.12255. N = 249 REVIEW

  130. Evans, Ling, Hill, Rinehart, Austin, Sciberras (2017): Systematic review of meditation-based interventions for children with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Jan;27(1):9-27. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1008-9. PMID: 28547119. REVIEW

  131. Lazar, Kerr, Wasserman, Gray, Greve, Treadway, McGarvey, Quinn, Dusek, Benson, Rauch, Moore, Fischl (2005): Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness.Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28;16(17):1893-7

  132. Hölzel, Ott, Gard, Hempel, Weygandt, Morgen, Vaitl (2008): Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry.Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2008 Mar;3(1):55-61. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsm038.

  133. Zhang, Díaz-Román, Cortese (2018): Meditation-based therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2018 Aug;21(3):87-94. doi: 10.1136/ebmental-2018-300015. PMID: 29991532. 13 Studien, n = 609 METASTUDIE

  134. Field, Hernandez-Reif, Diego, Schanberg, Kuhn (2005): Cortisol decreases and Serotonin and Dopamin increase following Massage Therapy; International Journal of Neuroscience Vol. 115, Iss. 10, 2005

  135. Chen, Yu, Suen, Yu, Ho, Yang, Yeung (2019): Massage therapy for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Feb;42:389-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.12.011. REVIEW

  136. Gohr Månsson, Elmose, Mejldal, Dalsgaard, Roessler (2019): The effects of practicing target-shooting sport on the severity of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms in children: a non-randomised controlled open-label study in Denmark. Nord J Psychiatry. 2019 May – Jul;73(4-5):233-243. doi: 10.1080/08039488.2019.1612467.

  137. https://www.mytherapyapp.com/de/blog/die-besten-meditations-apps

  138. Strehl et al (2013): Neurofeedback, Kohlhammer

  139. Strehl (2014): Hyperaktivität heilen – Interview mit Dr. Ute Strehl – FUTUREMAG – ARTE; Fernsehinterview 14.06.2014; Kurzfassung

  140. Arns, Kenemans (2012). Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia: Vigilance Stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.10.006

  141. Nesayan, Gandomani, Moin (2019): Effect of Neurofeedback on Perceptual Organization, Visual and Auditory Memory in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2019 Summer;13(3):75-82.

  142. López-Pinar, Martínez-Sanchís, Carbonell-Vayá, Sánchez-Meca, Fenollar-Cortés (2019): Efficacy of Nonpharmacological Treatments on Comorbid Internalizing Symptoms of Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review. J Atten Disord. 2019 Jun 13:1087054719855685. doi: 10.1177/1087054719855685. METASTUDIE

  143. Morgan, O’Keefe (2021): Does a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Parents of ADHD Children Improve Outcomes? A Pilot Project. Compr Child Adolesc Nurs. 2021 Jun 15:1-11. doi: 10.1080/24694193.2021.1933263. PMID: 34130566.

  144. Nobel, Hoekstra, Brunnekreef, Messink-de Vries, Fischer, Emmelkamp, van den Hoofdakker (2019): Home-based parent training for school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavior problems with remaining impairing disruptive behaviors after routine treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01375-9.

  145. Frisch, Tirosh, Rosenblum (2019): Parental Occupation Executive Training (POET): An Efficient Innovative Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2019 Jul 17:1-15. doi: 10.1080/01942638.2019.1640336.

  146. (über) Friedmann in http://www.huffingtonpost.de/2015/07/09/adhs-neue-behandlung_n_7762106.html?ncid=fcbklnkdehpmg00000002

  147. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 104

  148. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensation_Seeking

  149. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Seite 104 mwN

  150. Adamou, Arif, Asherson, Aw, Bolea, Coghill, Guðjónsson, Halmøy, Hodgkins, Müller, Pitts, Trakoli, Williams, Young (2013): Occupational issues of adults with ADHD. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Feb 17;13:59. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-59.

  151. ADHS, iPads, Schlaf und Konzentrationsprobleme: Im Licht neuer Erkenntnisse

  152. Skodol, Gunderson, Shea, McGlashan, Morey, Sanislow, Bender, Grilo, Zanarini, Yen, Pagano, Stout (2005): THE COLLABORATIVE LONGITUDINAL PERSONALITY DISORDERS STUDY (CLPS): OVERVIEW AND IMPLICATIONS, J Pers Disord. 2005 Oct; 19(5): 487–504. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.5.487; PMCID: PMC3289284; NIHMSID: NIHMS349849, Kapitel COURSE OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS

  153. Aubry, Jermann, Gex-Fabry, Bockhorn, Van der Linden, Gervasoni, Bertschy, Rossier, Bondolfi (2010): The cortisol awakening response in patients remitted from depression; journal of Psychiatric Research, December 2010, Volume 44, Issue 16, Pages 1199–1204; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.04.015

  154. Schuhmacher (2011): Depression als eine Störung der Stressregulation; Die Rolle von HPA-Achse, Serotonin-Transporter-Polymorphismus 5-HTTLPR und Hippocampusvolumen für die Depressionsentstehung und das Ansprechen auf die antidepressive Therapie; Dissertation, Seite 119

  155. Ludwig, Sanbonmatsu, Gennetian, Adam, Duncan, Katz, Kessler, Kling, Tessler Lindau, Whitaker, McDade (2011): Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes – a randomized social experiment; N. Engl. J. Med., 365, 2011, S. 1509-1519, Langzeitstudie über 15 Jahre, n = 4500

  156. Brandley, Holton (2020): Breakfast Positively Impacts Cognitive Function in College Students With and Without ADHD. Am J Health Promot. 2020 Feb 4:890117120903235. doi: 10.1177/0890117120903235. PMID: 32013526.

  157. Mittleman, Jones, Robbins (1988): The relationship between schedule-induced polydipsia and pituitary-adrenal activity: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations. Behav Brain Res. 1988 Jun;28(3):315-24.

  158. Rensing, Koch, Rippe, Rippe (2006): Der Mensch im Stress; Psyche, Körper, Moleküle, Seite 162

  159. Rensing, Koch, Rippe, Rippe (2006): Der Mensch im Stress; Psyche, Körper, Moleküle, Kapitel 4: neurobiologische Grundlagen von Stressreaktionen, Seite 74

  160. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, Seite 86

  161. Scheidtmann (2010): Bedeutung der Neuropharmakologie für die Neuroreha – Wirkung von Medikamenten auf Motivation und Lernen; neuroreha 2010; 2-2: 80-85; DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1254343; Schwerpunkt Motivation

  162. García-Redondo, García, Areces, Núñez, Rodríguez (2019): Serious Games and Their Effect Improving Attention in Students with Learning Disabilities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 11;16(14). pii: E2480. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16142480.

  163. Kollins, DeLoss, Cañadas, Lutz, Findling, Keefe, Epstein, Cutler, Faraone (2020): A novel digital intervention for actively reducing severity of paediatric ADHD (STARS-ADHD): a randomised controlled trial. www.thelancet.com/digital-health Vol 2 April 2020

  164. Davis NO, Bower J, Kollins SH (2018): Proof-of-concept study of an at-home, engaging, digital intervention for pediatric ADHD. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 11;13(1):e0189749. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189749. PMID: 29324745; PMCID: PMC5764249.

  165. https://www.akiliinteractive.com/news-collection/akili-announces-endeavortm-attention-treatment-is-now-available-for-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-al3pw

  166. Bul, Franken, Van der Oord, Kato, Danckaerts, Vreeke, Willems, van Oers, van den Heuvel, van Slagmaat, Maras (2015): Development and User Satisfaction of “Plan-It Commander,” a Serious Game for Children with ADHD. Games Health J. 2015 Dec;4(6):502-12. doi: 10.1089/g4h.2015.0021.

  167. Bul, Kato, Van der Oord, Danckaerts, Vreeke, Willems A, van Oers, Van Den Heuvel, Birnie, Van Amelsvoort, Franken, Maras (2016): Behavioral Outcome Effects of Serious Gaming as an Adjunct to Treatment for Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2016 Feb 16;18(2):e26. doi: 10.2196/jmir.5173.

  168. Bul, Doove, Franken, Oord, Kato, Maras (2018): A serious game for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Who benefits the most? PLoS One. 2018 Mar 15;13(3):e0193681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193681. eCollection 2018.

  169. García-Baos, D’Amelio, Oliveira, Collins, Echevarria, Zapata, Liddle, Supèr (2019): Novel Interactive Eye-Tracking Game for Training Attention in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2019 Jul 3;21(4). pii: 19m02428. doi: 10.4088/PCC.19m02428.

  170. Keshav, Vogt-Lowell, Vahabzadeh, Sahin (2019): Digital Attention-Related Augmented-Reality Game: Significant Correlation between Student Game Performance and Validated Clinical Measures of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children (Basel). 2019 May 28;6(6). pii: E72. doi: 10.3390/children6060072. n = 7

  171. Alqithami, Alzahrani, Alzahrani, Mustafa (2019): AR-Therapist: Design and Simulation of an AR-Game Environment as a CBT for Patients with ADHD. Healthcare (Basel). 2019 Nov 15;7(4). pii: E146. doi: 10.3390/healthcare7040146.

  172. Rodrigo-Yanguas, Martin-Moratinos, Menendez-Garcia, Gonzalez-Tardon, Royuela, Blasco-Fontecilla (2021): A Virtual Reality Game (The Secret Trail of Moon) for Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Development and Usability Study. JMIR Serious Games. 2021 Sep 1;9(3):e26824. doi: 10.2196/26824. PMID: 34468332.

  173. http://nevermindgame.com/

  174. http://gambit.mit.edu/loadgame/elude.php

  175. https://www.treasurehunt.uzh.ch/de.html

  176. Brezinka (2011): „Schatzsuche“ – ein verhaltenstherapeutisches Computerspiel / “Treasure Hunt” – A Cognitive-Behavioural Computer Game, Psydoc

  177. http://www.depressionquest.com/

  178. https://willoneill.com/actualsunlight/

  179. http://atraxgames.net/sym/

  180. Kahn, Ducharme, Rotenberg, Gonzalez-Heydrich (2013): “RAGE-Control”: A Game to Build Emotional Strength. Games Health J. 2013 Feb;2(1):53-7. doi: 10.1089/g4h.2013.0007.

  181. Kühn, Berna, Lüdtke, Gallinat, Moritz (2018): Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients. Front Psychol. 2018;9:129. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00129

  182. Gupta, Desai, Wong (2018): Commentary: Fighting Depression: Action Video Game Play May Reduce Rumination and Increase Subjective and Objective Cognition in Depressed Patients. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1844. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01844

  183. Iyadurai, Blackwell, Meiser-Stedman, Watson, Bonsall, Geddes, Nobre, Holmes (2018): Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the emergency department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial; Molecular Psychiatry volume 23, pages 674–682, 2018

  184. He F, Qi Y, Zhou Y, Cao A, Yue X, Fang S, Zheng Y (2023): Meta-analysis of the efficacy of digital therapies in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2023 May 16;14:1054831. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1054831. PMID: 37260755; PMCID: PMC10228751.

  185. Wexler, Vitulano, Moore, Katsovich, Smith, Rush, Grantz, Dong, Leckman (2020):. An integrated program of computer-presented and physical cognitive training exercises for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychol Med. 2020 Feb 24:1-12. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720000288. PMID: 32090720.

  186. Khan, Hall, Davies, Hollis, Glazebrook (2019): The Effectiveness of Web-Based Interventions Delivered to Children and Young People With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Nov 1;21(11):e13478. doi: 10.2196/13478. REVIEW

  187. Blasco-Fontecilla, Gonzalez-Perez, Garcia-Lopez, Poza-Cano, Perez-Moreno, Leon-Martinez, Otero-Perez (2016): Efficacy of chess training for the treatment of ADHD: A prospective, open label study, Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition), Volume 9, Issue 1, 2016, Pages 13-21, ISSN 2173-5050

  188. Kim, Han, Lee, Kim, Cheong, Han (2019): Baduk (the Game of Go) Improved Cognitive Function and Brain Activity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychiatry Investig. 2014;11(2):143–151. doi:10.4306/pi.2014.11.2.143

  189. Noda, Shirotsuki, Nakao (2019): The effectiveness of intervention with board games: a systematic review. Biopsychosoc Med. 2019 Oct 21;13:22. doi: 10.1186/s13030-019-0164-1. eCollection 2019. REVIEW

  190. Thair H, Holloway AL, Newport R, Smith AD (2017): Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): A Beginner’s Guide for Design and Implementation. Front Neurosci. 2017 Nov 22;11:641. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00641. PMID: 29213226; PMCID: PMC5702643.

  191. Fregni et al: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory, Exp. Brain Res. 2005, Sept. 166(1): 23-30, zitiert nach Kühle, Dr. med Hans-Jürgen, Neurofeedbacktherapie bei ADHS, Giessen 2010 (PDF von Webseite Dr. Kühle, Download August 2015), S. 4

  192. Demos: Getting started with neurofeedback, WW. NortonCompany, S. 85 bis 89, zitiert nach Kühle, Dr. med Hans-Jürgen, Neurofeedbacktherapie bei ADHS, Giessen 2010 (PDF von Webseite Dr. Kühle, Download August 2015), S. 4

  193. Chase HW, Boudewyn MA, Carter CS, Phillips ML (2020): Transcranial direct current stimulation: a roadmap for research, from mechanism of action to clinical implementation. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 Feb;25(2):397-407. doi: 10.1038/s41380-019-0499-9. Epub 2019 Aug 27. PMID: 31455860; PMCID: PMC6981019. REVIEW

  194. Nazarova VA, Sokolov AV, Chubarev VN, Tarasov VV, Schiöth HB (2022): Treatment of ADHD: Drugs, psychological therapies, devices, complementary and alternative methods as well as the trends in clinical trials. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Nov 17;13:1066988. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.1066988. PMID: 36467081; PMCID: PMC9713849. REVIEW

  195. Brandejsky, Franchi, Lopez, Bioulac, Da Fonseca, Daudet, Boyer, Richieri, Lançon (2016): Noninvasive cerebral stimulation for treatment of ADHD: A review of the literature; Encephale. 2016 Oct 10. pii: S0013-7006(16)30201-9. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2016.08.011 REVIEW

  196. Breitling, Zaehle, Dannhauer, Tegelbeckers, Flechtner, Krauel (2020): Comparison between conventional and HD-tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus in children and adolescents with ADHD. Clin Neurophysiol. 2020 Jan 24:S1388-2457(20)30025-0. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2019.12.412. PMID: 32029377.

  197. Alyagon, Shahar, Hadar, Barnea-Ygael, Lazarovits, Shalev, Zangen (2020): Alleviation of ADHD symptoms by non-invasive right prefrontal stimulation is correlated with EEG activity. Neuroimage Clin. 2020 Feb 6;26:102206. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102206. PMID: 32062566; PMCID: PMC7021642. n = 43

  198. Memon (2021): Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Treatment of Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Narrative Review of Literature. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2021 Jan 1;18(1-3):43-46. PMID: 34150364; PMCID: PMC8195561. REVIEW

  199. Klomjai, Siripornpanich, Aneksan, Vimolratana, Permpoonputtana, Tretriluxana, Thichanpiang (2022): Effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation on inhibitory and attention control in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A pilot randomized sham-controlled crossover study. J Psychiatr Res. 2022 Mar 2;150:130-141. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.02.032. PMID: 35367657.

  200. Amouzadeh F, Sheikh M (2022): Impact of transcranial alternating current stimulation on working memory and selective attention in athletes with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomized controlled trial. Neuroreport. 2022 Dec 14;33(17):756-762. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001842. PMID: 36250434.

  201. Lu H, Zhang Y, Qiu H, Zhang Z, Tan X, Huang P, Zhang M, Miao D, Zhu X (2023): A new perspective for evaluating the efficacy of tACS and tDCS in improving executive functions: A combined tES and fNIRS study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2023 Dec 11. doi: 10.1002/hbm.26559. PMID: 38083976.

  202. Brauer, Breitling-Ziegler, Moliadze, Galling, Prehn-Kristensen (2021): Transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of clinical efficacy outcomes. Prog Brain Res. 2021;264:91-116. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.01.013. PMID: 34167666. METASTUDIE, 13 Studien mit n = 308

  203. Cosmo C, DiBiasi M, Lima V, Grecco LC, Muszkat M, Philip NS, de Sena EP (2020): A systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Affect Disord. 2020 Nov 1;276:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.054. PMID: 32697687; PMCID: PMC8128973. METASTUDIE, 11 Studien

  204. Dallmer-Zerbe, Popp, Lam, Philipsen, Herrmann (2020): Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) as a Tool to Modulate P300 Amplitude in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Preliminary Findings. Brain Topogr. 2020 Jan 23;10.1007/s10548-020-00752-x. doi: 10.1007/s10548-020-00752-x. PMID: 31974733.

  205. Dakwar-Kawar, Berger, Barzilay, Grossman, Cohen Kadosh, Nahum (2022): Examining the Effect of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation and Cognitive Training on Processing Speed in Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study. Front Hum Neurosci. 2022 Jul 27;16:791478. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.791478. PMID: 35966992; PMCID: PMC9363890. n = 19

  206. Niederhofer H. Effectiveness of the repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of 1 Hz for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Psychiatr Danub. 2008 Mar;20(1):91-2. PMID: 18376338. n = 1

  207. Niederhofer H. Additional biological therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: repetitive transcranical magnetic stimulation of 1 Hz helps to reduce methylphenidate. Clin Pract. 2011 Dec 30;2(1):e8. doi: 10.4081/cp.2012.e8. PMID: 24765407; PMCID: PMC3981332. n = 1

  208. Bejenaru, Malhi (2022): Use of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Child Psychiatry. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2022 Apr-Jun;19(4-6):11-22. PMID: 35958966; PMCID: PMC9341313. REVIEW

  209. Gómez L, Vidal B, Morales L, Báez M, Maragoto C, Galvizu R, Vera H, Cabrera I, Zaldívar M, Sánchez A (2014): Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Preliminary results. Brain Stimul. 2014 Sep-Oct;7(5):760-2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.06.001. PMID: 25037768.

  210. Weaver L, Rostain AL, Mace W, Akhtar U, Moss E, O’Reardon JP (2012): Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a pilot study. J ECT. 2012 Jun;28(2):98-103. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e31824532c8. PMID: 22551775.

  211. Bloch, Harel, Aviram, Govezensky, Ratzoni, Levkovitz (2010): Positive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on attention in ADHD Subjects: a randomized controlled pilot study. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;11(5):755-8. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2010.484466. PMID: 20521875. n = 13

  212. Wang YC, Liu J, Wu YC, Wei Y, Xie HJ, Zhang T, Zhang Z (2023): A randomized, sham-controlled trial of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation on the right orbital frontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2023 Feb 13;14:987093. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.987093. PMID: 36860502; PMCID: PMC9968859. n = 47

  213. Nejati V, Mirikaram F, Rad JA (2023): Transcranial direct current stimulation alters the process of reward processing in children with ADHD: Evidence from cognitive modeling. Neurophysiol Clin. 2023 May 22;53(3):102884. doi: 10.1016/j.neucli.2023.102884. PMID: 37224617.

  214. Rauh J, Müller ASM, Nolte G, Haaf M, Mußmann M, Steinmann S, Mulert C, Leicht G (2023): Comparison of transcranial brain stimulation approaches: prefrontal theta alternating current stimulation enhances working memory performance. Front Psychiatry. 2023 Jun 30;14:1140361. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1140361. PMID: 37457770; PMCID: PMC10348840.

  215. Malone, Sun (2019): Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Pediatric Neurological Disorders. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2019 Nov 13;21(11):58. doi: 10.1007/s11940-019-0600-3.

  216. Sierawska, Prehn-Kristensen, Brauer, Krauel, Breitling-Ziegler, Siniatchkin, Buyx (2021): Transcranial direct-current stimulation and pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Findings from an interview ethics study with children, adolescents, and their parents. Prog Brain Res. 2021;264:363-386. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.04.002. PMID: 34167663. n = 32

  217. Breitling-Ziegler, Zaehle, Wellnhofer, Dannhauer, Tegelbeckers, Baumann, Flechtner, Krauel (2021): Effects of a five-day HD-tDCS application to the right IFG depend on current intensity: A study in children and adolescents with ADHD. Prog Brain Res. 2021;264:117-150. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.01.014. PMID: 34167653. n = 33

  218. Santos, Mosbacher, Menghini, Rubia, Grabner, Cohen Kadosh (2021): Effects of transcranial stimulation in developmental neurocognitive disorders: A critical appraisal. Prog Brain Res. 2021;264:1-40. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.01.012. PMID: 34167652. METASTUDIE, 26 Studien

  219. Guimarães RSQ, Bandeira ID, Barretto BL, Wanke T, Alves COC, Barretto TL, de Carvalho CF, Dorea-Bandeira I, Tolentino A, Lins-Silva DH, Lucena PH, Lucena R (2024): Efficacy and safety of transcranial direct current stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, triple-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Front Psychiatry. 2024 Jan 10;14:1217407. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1217407. PMID: 38268562; PMCID: PMC10806216.

  220. Fonteneau C, Redoute J, Haesebaert F, Le Bars D, Costes N, Suaud-Chagny MF, Brunelin J (2018): Frontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induces Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum in Human. Cereb Cortex. 2018 Jul 1;28(7):2636-2646. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhy093. PMID: 29688276; PMCID: PMC5998959. n = 32

  221. Strafella, Paus, Barrett, Dagher (2001): Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human prefrontal cortex induces dopamine release in the caudate nucleus. J Neurosci. 2001 Aug 1;21(15):RC157. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-15-j0003.2001. PMID: 11459878; PMCID: PMC6762641. n = 8

  222. Pogarell, Koch, Pöpperl, Tatsch, Jakob, Mulert, Grossheinrich, Rupprecht, Möller, Hegerl, Padberg (2007): Acute prefrontal rTMS increases striatal dopamine to a similar degree as D-amphetamine. Psychiatry Res. 2007 Dec 15;156(3):251-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.05.002. PMID: 17993266. n = 7

  223. Lan, Zhang, Luo (2009): Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: comparative efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and methylphenidate. J Int Med Res. 2009 May-Jun;37(3):939-48. doi: 10.1177/147323000903700340. PMID: 19589280. n = 34 Studien METASTUDIE

  224. Rybak, McNeely, Mackenzie, Jain, Levitan (2006): An open trial of light therapy in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;67(10):1527-35. doi: 10.4088/jcp.v67n1006. PMID: 17107243. n = 29

  225. Fargason, Fobian, Hablitz, Paul, White, Cropsey, Gamble (2017): Correcting delayed circadian phase with bright light therapy predicts improvement in ADHD symptoms: A pilot study. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Aug;91:105-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.03.004. PMID: 28327443. n = 16

  226. van Andel, Bijlenga, Vogel, Beekman, Kooij (2020): Effects of chronotherapy on circadian rhythm and ADHD symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Chronobiol Int. 2020 Oct 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2020.1835943. PMID: 33121289. n = 51

  227. Snitselaar, Smits, van der Heijden, Spijker (2017): Sleep and Circadian Rhythmicity in Adult ADHD and the Effect of Stimulants. J Atten Disord. 2017 Jan;21(1):14-26. doi: 10.1177/1087054713479663. PMID: 23509113. REVIEW

  228. Sikström, Söderlund (2007): Stimulus-dependent dopamine release in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychol Rev. 2007 Oct;114(4):1047-75. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.1047. PMID: 17907872. REVIEW

  229. Söderlund, Sikström, Smart (2007): Listen to the noise: noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;48(8):840-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01749.x. PMID: 17683456.

  230. Chen IC, Chan HY, Lin KC, Huang YT, Tsai PL, Huang YM. Listening to White Noise Improved Verbal Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jun 14;19(12):7283. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19127283. PMID: 35742531; PMCID: PMC9223803.

  231. Lin HY (2022): The Effects of White Noise on Attentional Performance and On-Task Behaviors in Preschoolers with ADHD. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Nov 21;19(22):15391. doi: 10.3390/ijerph192215391. PMID: 36430109; PMCID: PMC9692615.

  232. Egeland J, Lund O, Kowalik-Gran I, Aarlien AK, Söderlund GBW (2023): Effects of auditory white noise stimulation on sustained attention and response time variability. Front Psychol. 2023 Dec 8;14:1301771. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1301771. PMID: 38144987; PMCID: PMC10748431.

  233. Nigg JT, Bruton A, Kozlowski MB, Johnstone JM, Karalunas SL (2024): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Do White Noise and Pink Noise Help With Attention in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2024 Feb 23:S0890-8567(24)00074-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2023.12.014. PMID: 38428577. n = 335

  234. McGough, Sturm, Cowen, Tung, Salgari, Leuchter, Cook, Sugar, Loo (2019): Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled, Pilot Study of Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 28. pii: S0890-8567(19)30045-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2018.11.013.

  235. Grigolon, Blumberger, Daskalakis, Trevizol (2019): Editorial: Transcutaneous Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for Children With ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 7. pii: S0890-8567(19)30095-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.01.006.

  236. Loo SK, Salgari GC, Ellis A, Cowen J, Dillon A, McGough JJ (2021): Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive and Electroencephalographic Predictors of Treatment Response. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021 Jul;60(7):856-864.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2020.09.021. PMID: 33068751; PMCID: PMC9714960.

  237. Voelker (2019): Trigeminal Nerve Stimulator for ADHD. JAMA. 2019;321(21):2066. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.6992 n = 68

  238. Wong, Zaman (2019): Neurostimulation in Treating ADHD. Psychiatr Danub. 2019 Sep;31(Suppl 3):265-275.

  239. Berndt (2024): Die Kraft des Atems. Süddeutsche Zeitung, 01.03.24 deutsch

  240. Peters, in: Frühgeborene und Schule – Ermutigt oder ausgebremst? Kapitel 2: Das Aufmerksamkeitsdefizitsyndrom (AD(H)S) Seite 132

  241. Gilboa, Helmer (2020): Self-Management Intervention for Attention and Executive Functions Using Equine-Assisted Occupational Therapy Among Children Aged 6-14 Diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2020 Jan 14;10.1089/acm.2019.0374. doi: 10.1089/acm.2019.0374. PMID: 31934771.

  242. Müller, Candrian, Kropotov (2011): ADHS – Neurodiagnostik in der Praxis, Seite 24

  243. Zimmermann, Diers, Strunz, Scherbaum, Mette (2019): Listening to Mozart Improves Current Mood in Adult ADHD – A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Front Psychol. 2019 May 15;10:1104. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01104. eCollection 2019.

  244. Martin-Moratinos M, Bella-Fernández M, Blasco-Fontecilla H (2023): Effects of Music on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Potential Application in Serious Video Games: Systematic Review. J Med Internet Res. 2023 May 12;25:e37742. doi: 10.2196/37742. PMID: 37171837.

  245. Moëll, Kollberg, Nasri, Lindefors, Kaldo (2015): Living SMART — A randomized controlled trial of a guided online course teaching adults with ADHD or sub-clinical ADHD to use smartphones to structure their everyday life, Internet Interventions, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 24-31, ISSN 2214-7829, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2014.11.004. n = 57

  246. Tønning, Kessing, Bardram, Faurholt-Jepsen (2019): Methodological Challenges in Randomized Controlled Trials on Smartphone-Based Treatment in Psychiatry: Systematic Review. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Oct 27;21(10):e15362. doi: 10.2196/15362. REVIEW

  247. Smith, Langberg (2019): Do sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms improve with school-based ADHD interventions? Outcomes and predictors of change. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13149.

  248. Morris, Sheen, Ling, Foley, Sciberras (2020): Interventions for Adolescents With ADHD to Improve Peer Social Functioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Atten Disord. 2020 Mar 5:1087054720906514. doi: 10.1177/1087054720906514. PMID: 32131667. METASTUDIE

  249. Fox, Dishman, Valicek, Ratcliff, Hilton (2020): Effectiveness of Social Skills Interventions Incorporating Peer Interactions for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Am J Occup Ther. 2020 Mar/Apr;74(2):7402180070p1-7402180070p19. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2020.040212. PMID: 32204778. METASTUDIE

  250. Zaehle, Krauel (2021): Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A viable option? Prog Brain Res. 2021;264:171-190. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Jun 8. PMID: 34167655.

  251. Chen, Wu, Lee, Kung (2021): The Efficacy of Acupuncture Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Complement Med Res. 2021;28(4):357-367. English. doi: 10.1159/000513655. PMID: 33508834. n = 876, METASTUDIE

  252. Zhang L, Huang C, Chen X, Du S, Yang J, Hu B (2023): The efficacy of acupuncture for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Complement Ther Med. 2023 Aug 8;76:102968. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2023.102968. PMID: 37562658. METASTUDY

  253. Xing, Ren, Yue, Chen, Xia, Liu, Dong, Wu, Zhao (2021): Acupuncture treatment on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Aug 27;100(34):e27033. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000027033. PMID: 34449482; PMCID: PMC8389897.

  254. Ang L, Kim JT, Kim K, Lee HW, Choi JY, Kim E, Lee MS (2023): Acupuncture for Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Feb 17;59(2):392. doi: 10.3390/medicina59020392. PMID: 36837594; PMCID: PMC9965965.

  255. Diener, Kronfeld, Boewing, Lungenhausen, Maier, Molsberger, Tegenthoff, Trampisch, Zenz, Meinert (2006): GERAC Migraine Study Group. Efficacy of acupuncture for the prophylaxis of migraine: a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Apr;5(4):310-6. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70382-9. Erratum in: Lancet Neurol. 2008 Jun;7(6):475. PMID: 16545747., RCT

  256. Endres, Böwing, Diener, Lange, Maier, Molsberger, Zenz, Vickers, Tegenthoff (2007): Acupuncture for tension-type headache: a multicentre, sham-controlled, patient-and observer-blinded, randomised trial. J Headache Pain. 2007 Oct;8(5):306-14. doi: 10.1007/s10194-007-0416-5. PMID: 17955168; PMCID: PMC3476149., RCT

  257. Li, Liang, Yang, Tian, Yan, Sun, Chang, Tang, Ma, Zhou, Lan, Yao, Zou (2009): Acupuncture for treating acute attacks of migraine: a randomized controlled trial. Headache. 2009 Jun;49(6):805-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01424.x. PMID: 19438740. RCT

  258. Shetty, Jacob, Shetty, Mooventhan, Aryal, Asha (2020): Effect of acupuncture on cognitive task performance of college students: a pilot study. J Complement Integr Med. 2020 Dec 24;18(3):633-636. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0026. PMID: 34592075. RCT

  259. Xi, Fang, Yuan, Wang (2021): Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation for postoperative cognitive dysfunction in geriatric patients with gastrointestinal tumor: a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2021 Aug 23;22(1):563. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05534-9. PMID: 34425851; PMCID: PMC8383437. RCT

  260. de Assis, Chaves, de Sousa, Chianca, Borges, Terra, Brasileiro, Costa, Pereira, de Oliveira, de Castro Moura, Iunes (2021); The effects of auricular acupuncture on vascular parameters on the risk factors for diabetic foot: A randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2021 Aug;44:101442. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101442. PMID: 34265578. RCT

  261. Gaertner, Teut, Walach (2022): Is homeopathy effective for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder? A meta-analysis. Pediatr Res. 2022 Jun 14. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02127-3. PMID: 35701608.

  262. Brulé D, Landau-Halpern B, Nastase V, Zemans M, Mitsakakis N, Boon H (2023): A Randomized Three-Arm Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of Homeopathic Treatment of Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Integr Complement Med. 2023 Sep 6. doi: 10.1089/jicm.2023.0043. PMID: 37672605.

  263. Aspiranti KB, Hulac DM. Using Fidget Spinners to Improve On-Task Classroom Behavior for Students With ADHD. Behav Anal Pract. 2021 Jun 2;15(2):454-465. doi: 10.1007/s40617-021-00588-2. PMID: 35692528; PMCID: PMC9120292.

  264. Herrera-Murillo MA, Treviño M, Manjarrez E. Random noise stimulation in the treatment of patients with neurological disorders. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Dec;17(12):2557-2562. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.339474. PMID: 35662182; PMCID: PMC9165386.

  265. Milne N, Longeri L, Patel A, Pool J, Olson K, Basson A, Gross AR (2022): Spinal manipulation and mobilisation in the treatment of infants, children, and adolescents: a systematic scoping review. BMC Pediatr. 2022 Dec 19;22(1):721. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03781-6. PMID: 36536328; PMCID: PMC9762100.

  266. Zhu S, Zhang X, Zhou M, Kendrick KM, Zhao W (2022): Therapeutic applications of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation with potential for application in neurodevelopmental or other pediatric disorders. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Oct 12;13:1000758. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.1000758. PMID: 36313768; PMCID: PMC9596914.

  267. Wang M, Wang T, Li X, Yuan Y. Low-intensity ultrasound stimulation modulates cortical neurovascular coupling in an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rat model. Cereb Cortex. 2023 Oct 24:bhad398. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhad398. PMID: 37874023.

  268. Rudolf P, Ludvík V, Daniel D (2023): The Effects of Quiet Eye Training on Attention in Children with ADHD. J Hum Kinet. 2023 Jul 6;89:53-63. doi: 10.5114/jhk/168267. PMID: 38053954; PMCID: PMC10694725.

  269. Doan T, Pennewitt D, Patel R (2023): Animal assisted therapy in pediatric mental health conditions: A review. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2023 Dec;53(12):101506. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2023.101506. PMID: 38040610. REVIEW

  270. Velõ, Keresztény, Ferenczi-Dallos, Balázs (2019): Long-Term Effects of Multimodal Treatment on Psychopathology and Health-Related Quality of Life of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  271. Li Y, Zhang L (2023): Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Combined with Pharmacotherapy Versus Pharmacotherapy Alone in Adult ADHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Atten Disord. 2023 Dec 12:10870547231214969. doi: 10.1177/10870547231214969. PMID: 38084075.

  272. Schmidt, Petermann: ADHS über die Lebensspanne – Symptome und neue diagnostische Ansätze Sören Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 59 (3), 2011, 227–238, Seite 232

  273. Interdisziplinäre evidenz- und konsensbasierte (S3) Leitlinie “ADHS bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen

  274. Geissler, Vloet, Strom, Jaite, Graf, Kappel, Warnke, Jacob, Hennighausen, Haack-Dees, Schneider-Momm, Matthies, Rösler, Retz, Hänig, von Gontard, Sobanski, Alm, Hohmann, Poustka, Colla, Gentschow, Freitag, Häge, Holtmann, Becker, Philipsen, Jans (2019): Does helping mothers in multigenerational ADHD also help children in the long run? 2-year follow-up from baseline of the AIMAC randomized controlled multicentre trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 5. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01451-0.

  275. Perez Algorta, MacPherson, Arnold, Hinshaw, Hechtman, Sibley, Owens (2019): Maternal personality traits moderate treatment response in the Multimodal Treatment Study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 20. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01460-z.