Dear reader of, please excuse the disruption. needs about $63500 in 2024. In 2023 we received donations of about $ 32200. Unfortunately, 99.8% of our readers do not donate. If everyone who reads this request makes a small contribution, our fundraising campaign for 2024 would be over after a few days. This donation request is displayed 23,000 times a week, but only 75 people donate. If you find useful, please take a minute and support with your donation. Thank you!

Since 01.06.2021 is supported by the non-profit ADxS e.V..

$8975 of $63500 - as of 2024-02-29
Header Image
6. Gut-brain axis


6. Gut-brain axis

With 100 million neurons, the intestinal nervous system contains about as many as the spinal cord. Both are therefore independent nervous systems.
Most of the neurons of the intestinal nervous system neurons are located in:1

  • Plexus myentericus Auerbach (in the muscle wall)
  • Plexus submucosus Meissner (adjacent to the mucosa).

Influence specialized neurons of the intestinal nervous system (promoting or inhibiting depending on the transmitter and receptor):1

  • Motor skills (different movement patterns)
  • Secretion (water, electrolytes, hormones)
  • Perfusion (vascular tone, stimulating (vasodilation) or inhibiting (vasoconstriction) blood flow)
  • Resorption
  • Signal substance formation

The gut-brain axis plays a role in brain development, particularly in infancy, early childhood and childhood. The mother’s microbiome, the type of birth and the environment influence the child’s microbiome. Breastfeeding and a healthy diet provide the child’s gut with important probiotic elements, while antibiotics can disrupt the gut flora.

1. Gut-brain axis

The communication of the gut-brain axis is bidirectional. The brain influences the motor, sensory and secretory functions of the gastrointestinal tract top-down via efferent fibers of the vagus nerve. The gut influences the function of the brain bottom-up, in particular the amygdala and hypothalamus, via the afferent vagal fibers.2

Intestinal bacteria (intestinal microbiome, intestinal flora) influence the nervous system via various mechanisms:3

  • Metabolic pathway:2
    • through modulation of neurotransmitters3 such as GABA, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline2
      • direct
      • indirectly via biosynthetic pathways of the host organism.
    • by secretion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)2. These:
      • activate microglial cells4
      • influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier5
  • Immune system: circulating cytokines2
  • by changing the HPA axis activity6
  • by stimulation of the vagus nerve:278
    • The vagus nerve has 80 % afferent fibers, which transmit sensory stimuli from the body to the brain, and 20 % efferent fibers, which transport motor signals from the brain to the body.1

Bacteria can synthesize neurotransmitters and hormones and react to them:2

Bacterium Dopamine (DA) Noradrenaline (NE) Serotonin (5-HT) GABA Acetylcholine (ACh) Histamine (Hist) Other influences
Bacillus species produce DA910 produce NE910
Bacillus cereus produce DA3
Bacillus mycoides produce DA3 produce NE3
Bacillus subtilis produce DA3 produce NE3
Bifidobacterium species produce GABA910
Bifidobacterium adolescentis produce GABA3
Bifidobacterium angulatum produce GABA3
Bifidobacterium dentium produce GABA3
Bifidobacterium infantis produce GABA3
Candida produce 5-HT10
Cirobacter freundii produce Hist3
Enterobacter spp. produce Hist3
Enterococcus produce 5-HT910
Escherichia produce DA39 10 produce NE103 produce 5-HT1011 3
Hafnia alvei (NCIMB, 11999) produce DA3 produce 5-HT113 produce Hist3
Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCIMB, 673) produce DA3 produce 5-HT113 produce Hist3
L. lactis subsp. lactis (IL1403) produce 5-HT11
Lactobacillus species produce GABA910 produce ACh910
Lactobacillus brevis (DPC6108) produce GABA3
Lactobacillus buchneri (MS) produce GABA3
Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus (PR1) produce GABA3
Lactobacillus hilgardii produce Hist3
Lactobacillus mali produce Hist3
Lactobacillus plantarum (FI8595) produce 5-HT113 (ATCC14917) produce GABA3 produce ACh3 produce Hist3
Lactobacillus reuteri (100-23) produce GABA3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) produce GABA3; for GABA receptors see * see **
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (MG 1363) produce 5-HT113 produce Hist3
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (IL1403) produce Hist3
Monasmus purpureus (CCRC 31615) produce GABA3
Morganella morganii (NCIMB, 10466) produce DA3 produce 5-HT113 produce Hist3
Oenococcus oeni produce Hist3
Pediococcus parvulus produce Hist3
Proteus vulgaris produce DA3 produce NE3
Saccharomyces produce NE10
Serratia produce DA10
Serratia marcescens produce DA3 produce NE3
Staphylococcus aureus produce DA3
Streptococcus produce 5-HT910
Streptococcus thermophilus (NCFB2392) produce 5-HT113 produce Hist3
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (Y2) produce GABA3

* Altered the expression of GABA receptors in the brain via the vagus nerve8; GABA-B1b receptor mRNA increased in the cortex (cingulate and prelimbic), decreased in the hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus, GABA-Aα2 mRNA reduced in the PFC and amygdala, increased in the hippocampus.
** Reduced stress-related corticosterone secretion8; reduced anxiety- and depression-related behavior8

The production of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in intestinal neurons does not mean that the neurotransmitters transported in this way reach the brain.

  • Blood-brain barrier
    Acetylcholine can cross the blood-brain barrier. However, dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and GABA cannot, which means that these latter neurotransmitters produced in the gut do not directly change the levels in the brain.

  • Axonal transport
    We wonder whether neurotransmitters synthesized via the vagus nerve in the gut could be transported to the brain. There is evidence that nerve fibers of the vagus nerve contain dopamine.12

  • Influencing the prodrug balance
    We assume that even if peripherally synthesized or released dopamine, noradrenaline or serotonin from intestinal bacteria could not be directly introduced into the brain via the blood-brain barrier, intestinal bacteria should at least have an influence on the blood level of the precursors that can cross the blood-brain barrier. As a result, the blood level of the precursors could influence the amount of neurotransmitters synthesized from them in the brain.

Treatment options for microbiota problems are probiotics and fecal transplants.

2. Gut bacteria as a possible causal cause of ADHD?

One study found evidence of a causal relationship between gut bacteria and ADHD.13 (Note: Even if causality were confirmed, it should be assumed that this is only one of many different possible ways in which ADHD can develop and would therefore not apply to all sufferers)

One study found that mice whose guts were contaminated with gut bacteria from people with ADHD showed structural changes in the brain (white matter, gray matter, hippocampus, internal capsule), reduced connectivity between motor and visual cortices on the right side of the resting state, and higher anxiety than mice in which gut bacteria from people without ADHD were used.14

A single-case study reports an improvement in ADHD symptoms in a young woman following intestinal bacterial replacement related to a recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.15

3. Microbiome and short-chain fatty acids in ADHD

The primary functions of the microbiota include16

  • Protection against pathogens by increasing mucus production and thus stabilizing the intestinal-blood barrier
  • Support for the immune system
  • Production of vitamins
  • Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from indigestible carbohydrates

Short-chain fatty acids are:

C1:0 (no SCFA) Formic acid Methanoic acid Formates Methanoates HCOOH
C2:0 Acetic acid Ethanoic acid Acetate Ethanoate CH3COOH
C3:0 Propionic acid Propanoic acid Propionates Propanoates CH3CH2COOH
C4:0 Butyric acid Butanoic acid Butyrate Butanoate CH3(CH2)2COOH
C4:0 Isobutyric acid 2-Methylpropanoic acid Isobutyrate]] 2-Methylpropanoate (CH3)2CHCOOH
C5:0 Valeric acid Pentanoic acid Valerate Pentanoate CH3(CH2)3COOH
C5:0 Isovaleric acid 3-Methylbutanoic acid Isovalerate 3-Methylbutanoate (CH3)2CHCH2COOH
C6:0 Caproic acid Hexanoic acid Capronate Hexanoate CH3(CH2)4COOH

A study on short-chain fatty acids in the blood serum of ADHD compared to healthy family members found:17

  • Adults with ADHD
    • Formic acid reduces
    • Acetic acid reduces
    • Propionic acid reduces
    • Succinic acid reduced (C4H6O, an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid; food additive number E 363)
  • Children with ADHD
    • Formic acid lower than in adults
    • Propionic acid lower than in adults
    • Isovaleric acid lower than in adults
  • Antibiotic medication in the last 2 years caused
    • Formic acid reduces
    • Propionic acid reduces
    • Succinic acid reduces
  • current stimulant use in children caused
    • Acetic acid reduces
    • Propionic acid reduces

4. Gut microbiota in ADHD

Studies found abnormalities in the intestinal flora of children with ADHD16
ADHD correlated with leaky gut, neuroinflammation and overactivated microglial cells. The colonic microbiota exhibits a pro-inflammatory shift and harbors more gram-negative bacteria that contain immune-triggering lipopolysaccharides in their cell walls.18

Adults with ADHD had lower plasma concentrations of formic, acetic, propionic and succinic acid than their healthy family members. When ADHD patients were adjusted for SCFA-influencing factors, children had lower concentrations of formic, propionic, and isovaleric acids than adults, and those who had taken more antibiotic medications in the past two years had lower concentrations of formic, propionic, and succinic acids. After adjusting for antibiotic medication, we found that among children, those currently taking stimulant medications had lower acetic and propionic acid concentrations, and adults with ADHD had lower formic and propionic acid concentrations than adult healthy family members.

Early disruptions to the developing gut microbiota can affect neurological development and potentially lead to adverse mental health outcomes later in life.19

4.1. Reduced intestinal bacteria in ADHD

  • Bacteroides coprocola (B. coprocola)20
  • Butyricicoccus13
  • Coprococcus
    • Anti-inflammatory18
  • Desulfovibrio13
  • Dial register21
    • Dialister level increased after ADHD treatment
  • Enterococcus22
  • Eubacterium
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Eubacterium rectale
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Enterococcus22
  • Faecalibacterium prausnitzii22
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Faecalibacterium232422
    • Anti-inflammatory18
    • Faecalibacterium (Firmicutes strain)
      • Reduced Faecalibacterium (Firmicutes strain) correlated with increased hyperactivity / impulsivity25
  • LachnospiraceaeNC2004group13
  • Lachnospiraceae bacterium22
  • Lactobacillus
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Oxalobacteraceae13
  • Peptostreptococcaceae13
  • Prevotella26
    • produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)27
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Romboutsia13
  • Ruminococcus gnavus 22
    • Increased against: RuminococcaceaeUCG01313

4.2. Increased intestinal bacteria in ADHD

  • Acidaminococcus28
  • Actinobacteria29
    • Collinsella29
  • Agathobacter28
    • correlated with withdrawal symptoms and depression
  • Bacillota (synonym: Firmicutes)29
    • Coprococcus29
    • Subdoligranulum29
  • Bacteroidetes29
    • Bacteroides29
      • Correlated with hyperactivity / impulsivity in ADHD25
      • Bacteroides uniformis (B. uniformis)20
      • Bacteroides ovatus (B. ovatus)
        • Increase correlated with ADHD symptoms20
      • Bacteroides caccae22
      • Bacteroides faecis (OR: 1.09)30
      • Bacteroides eggerthii correlated with PTSD (OR: 1.11), not with ADHD30
      • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron correlated with PTSD (OR: 1.11), not with ADHD30
  • Bacteroidota29
    • Alistipes29
      • Pro-inflammatory18
  • Bifidobacterium
    • Anti-inflammatory18
    • Increases31
      • A slight increase in Bifidobacterium in the gut is thought to be associated with increased production of cyclohexadienyl dehydratase, which is a precursor to phenylanaline, which is a precursor to dopamine. At the same time, the increase in Bifidobacterium is thought to be associated with reduced reward anticipation, which may indicate reduced dopamine levels in the striatum. How these two seemingly contradictory pathways fit together is not yet clear to us.
      • Bifidobacterium codes for the enzyme arenate dehydratase (ADT), which is important for the production of phenylalanine. Phenylalanine can cross the blood-brain barrier and is a precursor of tyrosine, which is required for DA and NE synthesis.32 However, a small study found no systematic phenylalanine or tyrosine_abnormalities in children with ADHD.33
  • Eggerthella24
    • Pro-inflammatory18
  • Eubacteriumhalliigroup13
  • Flavonifractor
    • Pro-inflammatory18
  • Odoribacter splanchnicus22
  • Odoribacter24
    • Different a study according to which Odoribacter were reduced22
  • Paraprevotella xylaniphila22
  • Phascolarctobacterium28
  • Prevotella_2,28
  • Proteobacteria (Phylum)28
  • Roseburia1328
    • anti-inflammatory18
  • Ruminococcus gnavus28
    • correlated with rule-breaking behavior
  • Ruminococcustorquesgroup 13
    • RuminococcaceaeUCG01313
  • Sutterella stercoricanis (S. stercoricanis)
    • Increase correlated with intake of dairy products, nuts, seeds, legumes, iron, magnesium20
    • Increase correlated with ADHD symptoms20
  • Veillonella parvula22
  • Veillonellaceae22

No significant difference was found in the alpha diversity of intestinal bacteria in ADHD.2223

75 infants were randomly assigned to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or a placebo in the first 6 months of life. After 13 years, ADHD or ASD was found in 17% of the placebo group and in none of the probiotic group. Bifidobacteria were significantly reduced in the intestinal microbiome of the affected children in the first 6 months of life.3435

A study of urine and fecal samples using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry found gender-specific patterns in the metabolic phenotype of ADHD36

  • Urine profile
    • Hippurate (a product of microbial host co-metabolism that can cross the blood-brain barrier)
      • increased (men only)
      • correlated negatively with IQ (in men)
      • correlated with fecal metabolites associated with microbial metabolism in the gut.
  • Fecal profile (independent of ADHD medication, age and BMI)
    • Stearoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol increased
    • 3,7-Dimethylurate increased
    • FAD increased
    • Glycerol-3-phosphate reduced
    • Thymine reduced
    • 2(1H)-quinolinone reduced
    • Aspartate reduced
    • Xanthine reduces
    • Hypoxanthine reduces
    • Orotate reduced

5. Gut microbiota similar in ADHD and ASD

The intestinal microbiota in ADHD and ASD are quite similar in both alpha and beta diversity and differ significantly from non-affected individuals.
In addition, a subgroup of ADHD and ASD cases showed an increased concentration of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, which correlated positively with interleukin IL-8, IL-12 and IL-13, compared to unaffected children. This indicates a disturbance of the intestinal barrier and a dysregulation of the immune system in a subgroup of children with ADHD or ASD.37

6. Urinary microbiota in ADHD

A study of the urinary microbiota in ADHD found:38

  • a lower alpha diversity in the urine bacteria of the ADHD group
    • reduced Shannon and Simpson indices (p < 0.05)
  • significant differences in beta diversity
  • were common in ADHD:
    • Phyla Firmicutes
    • Actinobacteriota
    • Ralstonia (genus)
    • Afipia (genus)
  • less frequently with ADHD:
    • Phylum Proteobacteria
    • Corynebacterium (genus)
    • Peptoniphilus (genus)
  • Afipia correlated significantly with the results of the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems and the DSM-oriented ADHD subscale

  1. Hinghofer-Szalkay: Hirnnerven

  2. Kwak MJ, Kim SH, Kim HH, Tanpure R, Kim JI, Jeon BH, Park HK (2023): Psychobiotics and fecal microbial transplantation for autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: microbiome modulation and therapeutic mechanisms. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023 Jul 24;13:1238005. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2023.1238005. PMID: 37554355; PMCID: PMC10405178. REVIEW

  3. Strandwitz P (2018): Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota. Brain Res. 2018 Aug 15;1693(Pt B):128-133. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2018.03.015. PMID: 29903615; PMCID: PMC6005194. REVIEW

  4. Erny D, Hrabě de Angelis AL, Jaitin D, Wieghofer P, Staszewski O, David E, Keren-Shaul H, Mahlakoiv T, Jakobshagen K, Buch T, Schwierzeck V, Utermöhlen O, Chun E, Garrett WS, McCoy KD, Diefenbach A, Staeheli P, Stecher B, Amit I, Prinz M (2015): Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Jul;18(7):965-77. doi: 10.1038/nn.4030. PMID: 26030851; PMCID: PMC5528863.

  5. Braniste V, Al-Asmakh M, Kowal C, Anuar F, Abbaspour A, Tóth M, Korecka A, Bakocevic N, Ng LG, Kundu P, Gulyás B, Halldin C, Hultenby K, Nilsson H, Hebert H, Volpe BT, Diamond B, Pettersson S (2014): The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Nov 19;6(263):263ra158. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009759. Erratum in: Sci Transl Med. 2014 Dec 10;6(266):266er7. Guan, Ng Lai [corrected to Ng, Lai Guan]. PMID: 25411471; PMCID: PMC4396848.

  6. Sudo N, Chida Y, Aiba Y, Sonoda J, Oyama N, Yu XN, Kubo C, Koga Y (2004): Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol. 2004 Jul 1;558(Pt 1):263-75. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.063388. PMID: 15133062; PMCID: PMC1664925.

  7. Bonaz B, Bazin T, Pellissier S (2018): The Vagus Nerve at the Interface of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Front Neurosci. 2018 Feb 7;12:49. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00049. PMID: 29467611; PMCID: PMC5808284. REVIEW

  8. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF (2011): Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 20;108(38):16050-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102999108. PMID: 21876150; PMCID: PMC3179073.

  9. Galland L. The gut microbiome and the brain (2014): J Med Food. 2014 Dec;17(12):1261-72. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.7000. PMID: 25402818; PMCID: PMC4259177. REVIEW

  10. Lyte M (2011): Probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds: Microbial endocrinology in the design and use of probiotics. Bioessays. 2011 Aug;33(8):574-81. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100024. PMID: 21732396.

  11. O’Mahony SM, Clarke G, Borre YE, Dinan TG, Cryan JF (2015): Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jan 15;277:32-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.027. PMID: 25078296. REVIEW

  12. Dahlqvist A, Hellström S, Carlsöö B, Pequignot JM (1987): Paraganglia of the rat recurrent laryngeal nerve after long-term hypoxia: a morphometric and biochemical study. J Neurocytol. 1987 Jun;16(3):289-97. doi: 10.1007/BF01611341. PMID: 3612181.

  13. Wang L, Xie Z, Li G, Li G, Liang J (2023): Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis investigates causal associations between gut microbiota and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Front Microbiol. 2023 Apr 24;14:1144851. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1144851. PMID: 37168108; PMCID: PMC10166206.

  14. Tengeler, Dam, Wiesmann, Naaijen, van Bodegom, Belzer, Dederen, Verweij, Franke, Kozicz, Arias Vasquez, Kiliaan (2020): Gut microbiota from persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects the brain in mice. Microbiome. 2020 Apr 1;8(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s40168-020-00816-x. PMID: 32238191; PMCID: PMC7114819.

  15. Hooi, Dwiyanto, Rasiti, Toh, Wong RKM, Lee JWJ (2022): A case report of improvement on ADHD symptoms after fecal microbiota transplantation with gut microbiome profiling pre- and post-procedure. Curr Med Res Opin. 2022 Sep 26:1-13. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2022.2129232. PMID: 36164761.

  16. Bull-Larsen, Mohajeri (2019): The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD. Nutrients. 2019 Nov 17;11(11). pii: E2805. doi: 10.3390/nu11112805. REVIEW

  17. Yang LL, Stiernborg M, Skott E, Gillberg T, Landberg R, Giacobini M, Lavebratt C (2022): Lower plasma concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in patients with ADHD. J Psychiatr Res. 2022 Sep 28;156:36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.09.042. PMID: 36228390. n = 269

  18. Eicher, Mohajeri (2022): Overlapping Mechanisms of Action of Brain-Active Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in the Pathogenesis of Common Brain Diseases. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 27;14(13):2661. doi: 10.3390/nu14132661. PMID: 35807841.

  19. Borre, O’Keeffe, Clarke, Stanton, Dinan, Cryan (2020): Microbiota and neurodevelopmental windows: implications for brain disorders. Trends Mol Med. 2014 Sep;20(9):509-18. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2014.05.002. PMID: 24956966. REVIEW

  20. Wang, Yang, Chou, Lee, Chou, Kuo, Yeh, Lee, Huang, Li (2019): Gut microbiota and dietary patterns in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01352-2.

  21. Sukmajaya AC, Lusida MI, Soetjipto, Setiawati Y (2021): Systematic review of gut microbiota and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2021 Feb 16;20(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12991-021-00330-w. PMID: 33593384; PMCID: PMC7888126. REVIEW

  22. Wan, Ge, Zhang, Sun, Wang, Yang (2020): Case-Control Study of the Effects of Gut Microbiota Composition on Neurotransmitter Metabolic Pathways in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Front Neurosci. 2020 Feb 18;14:127. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00127. PMID: 32132899; PMCID: PMC7040164.

  23. Jiang, Zhou, Zhou, Li, Yuan, Li, Ruan (2018): Gut microbiota profiles in treatment-naïve children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jul 16;347:408-413. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.03.036. PMID: 29580894. n = 83

  24. Gkougka, Mitropoulos, Tzanakaki, Panagouli, Psaltopoulou, Thomaidis, Tsolia, Sergentanis, Tsitsika (2022): Gut microbiome and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Pediatr Res. 2022 Mar 30. doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02027-6. PMID: 35354932. METASTUDIE

  25. Caputi V, Hill L, Figueiredo M, Popov J, Hartung E, Margolis KG, Baskaran K, Joharapurkar P, Moshkovich M, Pai N (2024): Functional contribution of the intestinal microbiome in autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Rett syndrome: a systematic review of pediatric and adult studies. Front Neurosci. 2024 Mar 7;18:1341656. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2024.1341656. PMID: 38516317; PMCID: PMC10954784. METASTUDY

  26. Prehn-Kristensen A, Zimmermann A, Tittmann L, Lieb W, Schreiber S, Baving L, Fischer A (2018): Reduced microbiome alpha diversity in young patients with ADHD. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 12;13(7):e0200728. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200728. PMID: 30001426; PMCID: PMC6042771.

  27. Szopinska-Tokov J, Dam S, Naaijen J, Konstanti P, Rommelse N, Belzer C, Buitelaar J, Franke B, Bloemendaal M, Aarts E, Arias Vasquez A (2020): Correction: Szopinska-Tokov et al. Investigating the Gut Microbiota Composition of Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Association with Symptoms. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 406. Microorganisms. 2021 Jun 23;9(7):1358. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9071358. Erratum for: Microorganisms. 2020 Mar 13;8(3): PMID: 34201905; PMCID: PMC8306196.

  28. Lee MJ, Lai HC, Kuo YL, Chen VC (2022): Association between Gut Microbiota and Emotional-Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Pers Med. 2022 Oct 2;12(10):1634. doi: 10.3390/jpm12101634. PMID: 36294773; PMCID: PMC9605220.

  29. Taş E, Ülgen KO (2023): Understanding the ADHD-Gut Axis by Metabolic Network Analysis. Metabolites. 2023 Apr 26;13(5):592. doi: 10.3390/metabo13050592. PMID: 37233633; PMCID: PMC10223614.

  30. Xiao L, Liu S, Wu Y, Huang Y, Tao S, Liu Y, Tang Y, Xie M, Ma Q, Yin Y, Dai M, Zhang M, Llamocca E, Gui H, Wang Q (2023): The interactions between host genome and gut microbiome increase the risk of psychiatric disorders: Mendelian randomization and biological annotation. Brain Behav Immun. 2023 Aug 8;113:389-400. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2023.08.003. PMID: 37557965.

  31. Aarts, Ederveen, Naaijen, Zwiers, Boekhorst, Timmerman, Smeekens, Netea, Buitelaar, Franke, van Hijum, Arias Vasquez (2017): Gut microbiome in ADHD and its relation to neural reward anticipation. PLoS One. 2017 Sep 1;12(9):e0183509. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183509. PMID: 28863139; PMCID: PMC5581161.

  32. Eicher TP, Mohajeri MH (2022): Overlapping Mechanisms of Action of Brain-Active Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in the Pathogenesis of Common Brain Diseases. Nutrients. 2022 Jun 27;14(13):2661. doi: 10.3390/nu14132661. PMID: 35807841; PMCID: PMC9267981.

  33. Bergwerff CE, Luman M, Blom HJ, Oosterlaan J (2016): No Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 3;11(3):e0151100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151100. PMID: 26938936; PMCID: PMC4777504.

  34. Pärtty A, Kalliomäki M, Wacklin P, Salminen S, Isolauri E (2015): A possible link between early probiotic intervention and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in childhood: a randomized trial. Pediatr Res. 2015 Jun;77(6):823-8. doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.51. PMID: 25760553.

  35. Vasiliu O (2023) The current state of research for psychobiotics use in the management of psychiatric disorders-A systematic literature review. Front Psychiatry. 2023 Feb 23;14:1074736. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1074736. PMID: 36911130; PMCID: PMC9996157. REVIEW

  36. Swann JR, Diaz Heijtz R, Mayneris-Perxachs J, Arora A, Isaksson J, Bölte S, Tammimies K (2023): Characterizing the metabolomic signature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in twins. Neuropharmacology. 2023 Apr 24:109562. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2023.109562. PMID: 37100381.

  37. Bundgaard-Nielsen C, Lauritsen MB, Knudsen JK, Rold LS, Larsen MH, Hindersson P, Villadsen AB, Leutscher PDC, Hagstrøm S, Nyegaard M, Sørensen S (2023): Children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder share distinct microbiota compositions. Gut Microbes. 2023 Jan-Dec;15(1):2211923. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2023.2211923. PMID: 37199526; PMCID: PMC10197996.

  38. Cho YJ, Shin B, Lee SH, Park S, Kim YK, Kim JJ, Kim E (2023): Altered Urine Microbiome in Male Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Microorganisms. 2023 Aug 11;11(8):2063. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms11082063. PMID: 37630623; PMCID: PMC10458914.

Diese Seite wurde am 03.04.2024 zuletzt aktualisiert.