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ADHD Treatment Guide

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ADHD Treatment Guide

We consider the procedure described below to be fundamentally sensible. However, these are merely thoughts from a scientific point of view, which cannot represent a therapeutic recommendation for action in individual cases.
In each case, an individually tailored therapy plan must be developed by a physician or psychotherapist.
Our presentation here serves only to make medical recommendations more transparent to those affected and their families and to promote a capacity for dialogue with the treating physician and therapist.

1. First step: Secure diagnosis

  • Questionnaire AND tests, self-perception AND other-perception history, elementary school report cards or other reports from kindergarten and early school years
    • Caution: high self-interest in testing can lead to outcome as in non-affected (attention follows intrinsic control)
  • Family history
    • Genetic causes
    • Pregnancy and birth complications
    • Attachment Disorders
    • Physical or sexual abuse
    • Psychological abuse or low-threshold psychological stress
  • Complete differential diagnosis
    • Exclude deficiency symptoms: Blood count (thyroxine (thyroid), zinc, iron, magnesium, B1, B12, B6, D3, folic acid, etc.)
    • Exclude acute stress situation
    • IQ test
    • Exclude dominant disorders with similar symptoms
      More on the topic Differential diagnostics
  • Identify comorbidities

2. Second step: Acute measures

2.1. Treatment prioritization for ADHD with comorbidities

  • See here under 5.

2.2. Acute ADHD symptom elimination by medication

Medication for ADHD - Overview

  • Of those affected who would be helped by medication, only about 20 to 25% receive medication. Of those not affected, less than 1% receive medication they do not need.1
  • Cardiovascular testing is recommended prior to treatment with stimulants.2
2.2.1. Adults: amphetamine medication before methylphenidate (test several preparations) before atomoxetine before guanfacine

For adults, the most helpful* Prioritization of medications is:34
*Health insurer approvals may deviate from this

  • Amphetamine drugs before

  • Methylphenidate (test several preparations) before

  • Atomoxetine before

  • Guanfacin

  • L-amfetamine (Elvanse)

    • Usually works better and is better tolerated
    • Nonresponders: approx. 20
    • About 30% of adults who switch from MPH to Elvanse switch back again5
      • Too fast dosing in too high scraps increases nonresponder rate
  • Methylphenidate

    • If not effective: test several other MPH preparations
    • Different MPH preparations can have very different effects
    • Effect differences are rather individual than typical for the preparation
    • Nonresponders: approx. 30
      • Too fast dosing in too high scraps increases nonresponder rate
2.2.2. Children and adolescents: Methylphenidate (test multiple preparations) before amphetamine medications before guanfacine before atomoxetine

For children and adolescents, the most helpful* Prioritization of medications:
*Health insurer approvals may deviate from this

  • Methylphenidate6 ago
  • Amphetamine drugs before34
  • Guanfacin before
  • Atomoxetine

The guidance on methylphenidate and amphetamine medications in the previous section on adults applies equally to children and adolescents.

2.2.3. Dosage principles

In our experience, many mistakes are made during dosing, which not only prevent an optimal effect, but often enough prevent any effect at all. Therefore, the dosage instructions should be followed very urgently,
See in detail Medication dosage in ADHD

The main topics are:

  • Laaa slowly dose in
    • low initial dose (2.5 mg unretarded MPH / single dose or equivalent for other medications)
    • at least 5 days / dose level
    • Dosing increments max. 2.5 mg unret. MPH / single dose
    • Effect of slow dosing:
      • reduces side effects
      • prevents skipping the appropriate dose
    • Keep dosage aid table
  • Nonresponder treatment
  • All-day coverage is mandatory
    • ADHD does not end after school
      • a treatment should not only establish a school ability
      • Homework, social life and family life suffer quite significantly under ADHD
    • unretarded MPH acts 2.5 - 3.5 hours / single dose
      • 4 to 5 single doses
      • hardly feasible in the long term, especially with children
      • for dosing, unretarded MPH is nevertheless advantageous, as it can be regulated most finely
    • half-day-retarded MPH acts 5 - 6 hours / single dose
      • 2 doses + if necessary unretarded MPH for residual coverage
      • Second dose idR 50% to 75% of first dose
    • all-day-retarded MPH acts for 10 - 12 hours
    • Attentin (unretarded AMP) acts 5 - 6 hours
      • 2 doses and, if necessary, unretarded MPH for residual coverage
      • Second dose idR 50% to 75% of first dose
    • L-amfetamine (Elvanse / Vyvanse) is effective for approx. 10 - 12 hours
      • 1 dose and unretarded MPH for residual coverage, if necessary
    • Guanfacin
      • Mirror drug, 1 x daily
    • Atomoxetine
      • Mirror drug, 1 x daily
  • Combination medication for fine-tuning / for difficult cases
    • in particular:
      • 50% ATX for full day treatment of emotional dysregulation
      • 50 % MPH or AMP, as usually better effect on drive / concentration
  • Rebound treatment
    • Rebound particularly frequent with MPH
    • Remedy
      • Take second dose in time for it to kick in before first dose runs out in rebound
      • unretarded MPH shortly before the end of the last dose
        • 1/4 to 1/3 of what would correspond to a daytime treatment dose
        • Example: 20 mg half-day sustained-release MPH corresponds to 2 x 10 mg unretained MPH. Here, therefore, 2.5 to 3.5 mg unretarded MPH 30 min before the end of the last retarded dose.
2.2.4. Effect sizes of different drugs
  • Effect strength at optimum setting
    • Amphetamine drugs: 1.1-1.5
    • Methylphenidate: 1.0-1.3
    • Guanfacine: 0.8
    • Atomoxetine: 0.65
2.2.5. Goals of an optimal medication setting
  • Enable experience of what life without ADHD can be and feel like (enables sufferers to intrinsically define goals for non-pharmacological therapy)
  • Establish therapy capability (bring attention and concentration to the level required for learning more functional ways of acting)
    • Increasing treatability with dopaminergic ADHD medications, as dopamine increases or restores neuroplasticity7
    • In ADHD, growth hormones, which are necessary for neuroplasticity (learning), are reduced. Stimulants increase the levels of growth hormones.
  • The goal is not to completely eliminate all ADHD symptoms.
    • ADHD sufferers differ from non-affected people only in the number of symptoms they have frequently. Non-affected people also have some symptoms frequently.
    • Single prominent symptoms should be treated as singularly as possible (e.g. impulsivity with smallest doses of SSRI) instead of trying to treat them with ADHD medications, as this would result in too strong a broad intervention

2.3. Many other small treatment steps

The points mentioned here should always be considered in ADHD treatment, as they can usually make a further helpful contribution without showing significant side effects. The points do not represent alternatives, but should all be considered.
However, their effect size (even in combination of all possibilities) is considerably lower than the above mentioned relevant medications. If it would be different, the reports about a successful treatment without the relevant drugs would be legend. Newcomers to this topic can obtain information in affected person forums, such as the ADHD forum from ADxS.org

  • Vitamins and minerals
    Determine blood levels and dose to upper limits or above. More on this at* ⇒ Vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements for ADHD*
    • Vitamin D3
      • October to May essential in Germany
      • Very important in ADHD, indispensable in depression. Prescribing serotonergic or noradrenergic antidepressants (which in our opinion have considerably stronger side effects than ADHD drugs) without first checking the D3 level is, in our opinion, malpractice (except in severe depression)
    • Zinc
    • Magnesium
    • Iron
    • B12
    • B 6
  • Omega-3/Omega-6 fatty acids
  • Sleep problems
    • Treat offensively
    • Avoid benzodiazepines and SSRIs. If necessary, trimipramine, amitriptyline or trazodone (each at low doses)
    • Melatonin (unretarded, especially helpful in ADHD)
    • Light therapy
    • More on this at Sleep problems with ADHD
  • Initiate drug treatment of mild remaining comorbidities, if possible, only after analyzing the impact of ADHD medication (usually after about 6 months)
  • Test and exclude food intolerances
  • Test and exclude allergies
  • Test and treat chronic low-threshold inflammation (very difficult)
  • Lots of sports and exercise8
    • Endurance sports have a significant effect strength in reducing the symptomatology of ADHD (and other psychological problems such as depression)
      • Effect strength of weight training, on the other hand, is lower
    • Sport must be fun for it to be practiced sustainably
    • Endurance sports
      • Increases stress resistance, shuts down stress systems (for 24 - 48 hours)
      • Effect size in the optimal case (e.g. 5 x 1 hour / week) up to 0.7
    • See more at Sleep problems with ADHD;
  • Healthy diet
    • Avoid sugar9
    • Avoid bad fats (saturated fatty acids, trans fats; e.g. deep-frying fat)8
    • Abundant antioxidant foods (vegetables, fruits)8
      • Helps to reduce antioxidant stress

3. Third step: Therapy measures

3.1. Psychotherapy to reduce symptoms

Here it is only insignificantly important which form of therapy is chosen (exception: mindfulness-based therapies are better suited than cognitive therapies, depth psychological therapies are only of use for unpleasant experiences to be worked through and psychoanalysis is basically unsuitable for ADHD). It is much more important that the patient feels very comfortable and accepted by the therapist. This does not at all mean a cuddly therapy, where the therapist would only tell the patient what the patient wanted to hear, but the positive acceptance and the basis of trust, which are the indispensable foundations for a successful therapy. Without these minimum conditions, the best form of therapy and the greatest experience of the person treating the patient will be useless. Therefore, a great deal of patience is required here in the selection of the appropriate therapist.
It is further important that it is not a matter of a single therapeutic measure, but that as long and as many therapeutic measures take place until a satisfactory condition has been reached.

In all therapy measures, it must be ensured that the therapist is familiar with all ADHD symptoms relevant to treatment. Often enough, doctors and therapists are still subject to the fatal error that ADHD is limited to the diagnosis-relevant symptoms of DSM or ICD. Therapists who do not want to accept the original symptoms of ADHD beyond DSM / ICD as such should be avoided. Otherwise, there is a concrete danger that the affected person will be assigned responsibility for behaviors that in reality stem from ADHD itself. Such a thing can cause further deterioration for the affected person instead of improvement

Appropriate types of therapy may include:

  • Mindfulness-based (behavioral) therapy (MBCT) to improve self-awareness, to improve self-control over symptoms, and to learn and practice mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and stress reduction techniques (e.g., 8-week intensive MBCT + MBSR courses)
    Especially in ADHD-HI, the vicious cycle of inability to recover should be broken, which helps maintain the continuous operation of the HPA axis.
  • Neurofeedback for long-term improvement of self-control (6 months to 2 years)
    • SMR training to improve impulse control and against sleep problems
    • Theta-beta training to improve the regulation of activation
    • SCT training to reduce overactivation or increase underactivation
    • Especially recommendable seems to be a combination of Theta-Beta-Training or Z-Score-Training and SCP-Training (simultaneously or consecutively)
  • If necessary, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for self-esteem problems, social behavior problems. Here, Rejection Sensitivity: Fear of rejection and criticism as a specific ADHD symptom note. Cortisolergic stress arises especially in subjectively self-esteem-threatening situations.
  • If necessary, depth psychological therapy for the treatment of serious experiences / experiences
  • If necessary, trauma therapy (EMDR) for traumatic experiences
  • For children up to age 6 or 10: parent-centered therapy; child-centered therapy ineffective.

3.2. Environment Interventions

  • Eliminate stressors
  • Optimal design of the working and learning environment, e.g
    • Eliminate superfluous stimuli
    • Enable sufficient arousal
  • Conversations with relationship people to create mutual understanding
    • If necessary, systemic therapy (family therapy, parent therapy) to change ingrained problem patterns
  • Life and career focus on things that really matter

3.3. Psychoeducation

  • Acquire knowledge about the causes, correlations, effects and possibilities of influence
    • Read books about ADHD (several)
    • Youtube videos of professionals (lectures)
    • Attend lectures (e.g. from ADHS Deutschland e.V.)
    • Visit self-help groups, preferably if led by a person with professional experience (to be found, for example, at ADHS Deutschland e.V.)

3.4. Group experience with other affected people

  • An ADHD diagnosis is already accompanied by the realization of being different from others, in both a negative and a positive sense. This realization is often associated with great hopes for improvement of the life situation.10
  • The experience that other people have gone through or are going through the same thing often brings about an amazing relief for ADHD sufferers
    • Feeling of coming home among like-minded people
    • Self-esteem boosting
    • Exchange of experience
    • Willingness to address the issue

4. Fourth step: comorbidities and medications review

4.1. Comorbidities

  • After 9 to 12 months of ADHD treatment, check for continuation of comorbidities
  • Specific drug treatment if necessary (note interactions, e.g. caution with SSRIs)
  • If necessary, select specific ADHD medications that also have a positive effect on comorbid disorders
    • Atomoxetine acts noradrenergically and dopaminergically on PFC and striatum, stimulants noradrenergically and dopaminergically on striatum only.
      Atomoxetine in ADHD Atomoxetine is reported to be beneficial in severe ADHD-I or SCT.

    • Note problem with serotonin reuptake inhibitors in ADHD-I.
      Comments on serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in ADHD

    • In ADHD with bipolar disorder:
      Whether ADHD medications (especially for bipolar 1) can have a mood-destabilizing effect is controversial. In contrast: Barkley11
      It is recommended to treat Bipolar Disorder first and then ADHD (see above).

4.2. Drug Review

  • After completion of non-drug therapy measures (regularly, e.g. annually), check whether medication is still required
    • Adjustment if necessary
    • Reduction if necessary
    • Termination if necessary
  • Regular physical checkup when medication is administered
  • Dosage: to attempt to eliminate all ADHD symptoms through medication would be malpractice. Unaffected individuals have 9 of 32 symptoms (of the total symptom list ⇒ Symptom total list according to manifestations frequently; affected individuals have 26 of 32 symptoms frequently. To try to completely eliminate even the “healthy” 9 symptoms would inevitably lead into overdose.

We have witnessed astonishing changes in patients as a result of medicinal and therapeutic measures, and in some cases the quality of life has improved immensely within just one year.
Particularly impressive were the changes in those affected who, with patience and consistency, took advantage of every opportunity that presented itself for improvement. For hardly any of the patients, all the perceived forms of therapy proved to be useful. According to our perception, the most successful patients were those who did not expect a certain success from individual measures, but who consistently tried one measure after the other until a satisfactory condition was reached. Once one therapeutic measure was completed, the next one followed, but only as much at a time as was easily manageable.

5. Treatment prioritization for comorbidities

5.1. Prioritization according to the severity of the disturbance pattern

5.1.1. Comorbidity more severe than ADHD

  • Primary treatment of comorbidity
  • E.g. major depression, bipolar 1,1213 addiction, psychosis, severe anxiety
  • For depression, anxiety and addiction at the same time with parallel treatment of ADHD, which is usually the cause.14
  • Specialized treatment may be needed for comorbid anxiety with ADHD.14

5.1.2. ADHD more severe than comorbidity

  • Primary treatment of ADHD as the leading disorder.12
  • Mild emotional dysregulation, mood swings, mild impulsivity or aggressiveness, mild anxiety disorders, or dysphoria (especially dysphoria with inactivity) are improved by AD(HHD) treatment.151316

5.1.3. ADHD and comorbidity equal more severe

When in doubt, we would prefer ADHD treatment.
Treatment of ADHD can significantly reduce the symptoms of comorbidities - even eliminating them.17
We also believe that consideration of the side effects of medications, so that the treatment with the fewest side effects is preferred, should usually lead to prioritization of ADHD treatment.

Depression in ADHD, for example, may also be determined by the intensity of unpleasant conflicts that are co-induced by ADHD symptoms.18

5.2. Treatment guidelines for specific comorbidities

5.2.1. ADHD and depression:

  • Note difference dysphoria / major depression in ADHD
    Depression and dysphoria in ADHD
  • Always check D3 blood levels and thyroid hormones before antidepressant administration for moderate or mild depression
  • Summary of the Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm in ADHD-HI and MDD by Burleson Daviss (2018) Moodiness in ADHD - A Clinicians Guide, p. 99 (modified)1920 21
    • Impairment from ADHD-HI worse than from MDD
      • Start stimulant monotherapy according to ADHD-HI algorithm
        • When thereupon:
        • ADHD-HI, but does not address depression:
          Add SSRI for the treatment of depression
        • ADHD-HI and depression remain the same:
          Change to a new stimulant class
          • From MPH to AMP or from AMP to MPH
            • Amphetamine medications, unlike MPH, have concomitant mild antidepressant effects and therefore have an advantage over MPH in comorbid depression…. Amphetamine medication in ADHD
          • If MPH and AMP unsuccessful
            • Change to Guanfacin
          • If guanfacine also unsuccessful
            • Switch to atomoxetine
        • ADHD-HI and/or depression exacerbation:
          Switch to SSRI2223
    • Impairment from MDD worse than from ADHD-HI22 or suicidal ideation/suicidal behavior20
      • Start SSRI monotherapy22
        • When thereupon
          • Depression, but does not address ADHD-HI:
            Add stimulants to treat ADHD-HI
          • Depression stays the same or gets worse:
            Switch to another SSRI
        • When thereupon
          • Depression but does not address ADHD-HI:
            Add stimulant to treat ADHD-HI.
          • Depression stays the same or gets worse:
            Switch to non-SSRI antidepressant, eg
            • Bupropion12
            • If bupropion unsuccessful:
              Nortriptyline, desipramine, or venlafaxine12

5.2.2. ADHD and addiction

  • Addiction or alcohol abuse should be stabilized first, but can be treated simultaneously with ADHD.15 In particular, there is no longer any reason to withhold stimulants as ADHD medication from addicts and treat them solely with atomoxetine, which is significantly less effective and has considerably more side effects.3

  1. Massuti, Moreira-Maia, Campani, Sônego, Amaro, Akutagava-Martins, Tessari, Polanczyk, Cortese, Rohde (2021): Assessing undertreatment and overtreatment/misuse of ADHD medications in children and adolescents across continents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2021 Jun 3;128:64-73. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.06.001. PMID: 34089763. REVIEW

  2. Picarzo, Malfaz, Hernández, Marcos, Soria, García, Sombrero, Rotés, Sarquella-Brugada (2019): [Recommendations of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease as regards the use of drugs in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with a known heart disease, as well as in the general paediatric population: Position statement by the Spanish Paediatric Association]. [Article in Spanish] An Pediatr (Barc). 2019 Oct 29. pii: S1695-4033(19)30274-7. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2019.09.002.

  3. Kooij, Bijlenga, Salerno, Jaeschke, Bitter, Balázs, Thome, Dom, Kasper, Filipe, Stes, Mohr, Leppämäki, Brugué, Bobes, Mccarthy, Richarte, Philipsen, Pehlivanidis, Niemela, Styr, Semerci, Bolea-Alamanac, Edvinsson, Baeyens, Wynchank, Sobanski, Philipsen, McNicholas, Caci, Mihailescu, Manor, Dobrescu, Krause, Fayyad, Ramos-Quiroga, Foeken, Rad, Adamou, Ohlmeier, Fitzgerald, Gill, Lensing, Mukaddes, Brudkiewicz, Gustafsson, Tania, Oswald, Carpentier, De Rossi, Delorme, Simoska, Pallanti, Young, Bejerot, Lehtonen, Kustow, Müller-Sedgwick, Hirvikoski, Pironti, Ginsberg, Félegeházy, Garcia-Portilla, Asherson (2018): Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD, European Psychiatrie, European Psychiatry 56 (2019) 14–34, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.11.001, Seite 22, 7.4.1.

  4. Cortese, Adamo, Del Giovane, Mohr-Jensen, Hayes, Carucci, Atkinson, Tessari, Banaschewski, Coghill, Hollis, Simonoff, Zuddas, Barbui, Purgato, Steinhausen, Shokraneh, Xia, Cipriani (2018): Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;5(9):727-738. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30269-4.

  5. Aussage eines Arztes in 10/2020, ca. 1,5 Jahre nach Zulassung von Elvanse adult

  6. Schonwald, Chan, Nyp (2019): Not Really “The Same Thing”. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2019 Dec 3. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000756.

  7. Scheidtmann (2010): Bedeutung der Neuropharmakologie für die Neuroreha – Wirkung von Medikamenten auf Motivation und Lernen; neuroreha 2010; 2-2: 80-85; DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1254343

  8. Loewen, Maximova, Ekwaru, Asbridge, Ohinmaa, Veugelers (2020): Adherence to lifestyle recommendations and ADHD: A population-based study of children aged 10-11 years. Psychosom Med. 2020 Feb 13. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000787. PMID: 32058459. n=3.436

  9. Loewen, Maximova, Ekwaru, Asbridge, Ohinmaa, Veugelers (2020): Adherence to lifestyle recommendations and ADHD: A population-based study of children aged 10-11 years. Psychosom Med. 2020 Feb 13. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000787. PMID: 32058459. n = 3.436

  10. Frondelius, Ranjbar, Danielsson (2019): Adolescents’ experiences of being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a phenomenological study conducted in Sweden. BMJ Open. 2019 Aug 26;9(8):e031570. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031570.

  11. Barkley (2014): Dr Russell Barkley on ADHD Meds and how they all work differently from each other; Youtube – Langfassung, ca. Minute 57:20

  12. Bond, Hadjipavlou, Lam, McIntyre, Beaulieu, Schaffer, Weiss, CANMAT (2012): The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;24(1):23-37.

  13. Perugi, Pallucchini, Rizzato, Pinzone, De Rossi (2019): Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 May 21:1-14. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2019.1618270.

  14. Perugi, Pallucchini, Rizzato, Pinzone, De Rossi (2019): Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Aug;20(12):1457-1470. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2019.1618270.

  15. Kooij, Bijlenga, Salerno, Jaeschke, Bitter, Balázs, Thome, Dom, Kasper, Filipe, Stes, Mohr, Leppämäki, Brugué, Bobes, Mccarthy, Richarte, Philipsen, Pehlivanidis, Niemela, Styr, Semerci, Bolea-Alamanac, Edvinsson, Baeyens, Wynchank, Sobanski, Philipsen, McNicholas, Caci, Mihailescu, Manor, Dobrescu, Krause, Fayyad, Ramos-Quiroga, Foeken, Rad, Adamou, Ohlmeier, Fitzgerald, Gill, Lensing, Mukaddes, Brudkiewicz, Gustafsson, Tania, Oswald, Carpentier, De Rossi, Delorme, Simoska, Pallanti, Young, Bejerot, Lehtonen, Kustow, Müller-Sedgwick, Hirvikoski, Pironti, Ginsberg, Félegeházy, Garcia-Portilla, Asherson (2018): Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD, European Psychiatrie, European Psychiatry 56 (2019) 14–34, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.11.001, Seite 21

  16. Murray, Caye, McKenzie, Auyeung, Murray, Ribeaud, Freeston, Eisner (2020): Reciprocal Developmental Relations Between ADHD and Anxiety in Adolescence: A Within-Person Longitudinal Analysis of Commonly Co-Occurring Symptoms. J Atten Disord. 2020 Mar 14:1087054720908333. doi: 10.1177/1087054720908333. PMID: 32172640.

  17. Edel, Vollmoeller: Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, 2006, Seite 91 ff

  18. Semeijn, Comijs, Kooij, Michielsen, Beekman, Deeg (2015): The role of adverse life events on depression in older adults with ADHD; J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 15;174:574-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.048.

  19. Pliszka, Crismon, Hughes, Corners, Emslie, Jensen, McCRACKEN, Swanson, Lopez (2006):TEXAS CONSENSUS CONFERENCE PANEL ON PHARMACOTHERAPY OF CHILDHOOD ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: revision of the algorithm for pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;45(6):642-657. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000215326.51175.eb. PMID: 16721314.

  20. Pliszka, Greenhill, Crismon, Sedillo, Carlson, Conners, McCracken, Swanson, Hughes, Llana, Lopez, Toprac (2000): The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: Report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Part I. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;39(7):908-19. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200007000-00021. PMID: 10892234. REVIEW

  21. Pliszka, Greenhill, Crismon, Sedillo, Carlson, Conners, McCracken, Swanson J, Hughes, Llana, Lopez, Toprac (2000): The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Projct: Report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Part II: Tactics. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;39(7):920-7. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200007000-00022. PMID: 10892235. REVIEW

  22. Hughes, Emslie, Crismon, Posner, Birmaher, Ryan, Jensen, Curry, Vitiello, Lopez, Shon, Pliszka, Trivedi (2007): TEXAS CONSENSUS CONFERENCE PANEL ON MEDICATION TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER. Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: update from Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;46(6):667-686. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e31804a859b. PMID: 17513980.

  23. Hughes, Emslie, Crismon, Wagner, Birmaher, Geller, Pliszka, Ryan, Strober, Trivedi, Toprac, Sedillo, Llana, Lopez, Rush (1999): The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;38(11):1442-54. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199911000-00020. PMID: 10560232.

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