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The amygdala - the stress conductor

The amygdala - the stress conductor

The amygdala (part of the limbic system) is the central agency for evaluating stressors for threat and triggers the brain’s stress responses.1

Parts of the amygdala are:

  • Lateral amygdala (LA)
  • Basolateral amygdala (BLA) → calculated action
  • Central medial amygdala (CMA) → impulse-driven emotional behavior

The amygdala receives information from many organs and systems about current stressors.

1. Signal input to amygdala (afferents)

The signal inputs of the amygdala are shown after Rensing, Koch, rib.2

→ means in each case an information transfer in the direction of the arrow.
An indented → indicates an information transfer from the parent point.

  • Monoamine systems
    • DopamineAmygdala
    • Norepinephrineamygdala
    • Serotonin → Amygdala
  • Sensory stimuli
    • Aversive sensory stimuli
      • → Spinal cord → Nucleus parabrachialis → Amygdala
      • → parabrachial nucleus (direct) → amygdala
      • Thalamus (sensory and polymodal nuclei) → Amygdala
    • Neutral / conditioned sensory stimuli
      • Thalamus (sensory and polymodal nuclei)
        • Amygdala
        • cortex (primary sensory nuclei)
          • Amygdala
          • Cortex (association areas)
            • Amygdala
            • → primary insular cortex
              • Amygdala
              • Hippocampus
                • Amygdala
    • Odors
      • Bulbus olfactorius of the cortex
        • Amygdala
          due to the great importance of the sense of smell, this is the only stimulus that is directly wired to the medial amygdala3
    • Visual stimuli
      • Inferotemporal cortex → amygdala4
    • Acoustic stimuli
      • Upper temporal lobe → amygdala5

2. Signal output from amygdala (efferents)

The signal outputs of the amygdala are shown after Rensing, Koch, rib.2

→ means in each case an information transfer in the direction of the arrow.

  • Interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis
  • Hypothalamus (lateral)
    • → rostroventrolateral medulla
      • → Sympathetic nervous system
        • → Blood pressure increase
        • → Blood pressure decrease
        • → pupil dilation
        • → Skin resistance reduction
  • Central cave gray
    • → Freezing
    • → Analgesia
  • Motor trigeminal and facial nucleus
    • → anxious or stressed facial expression
  • Insular and prefrontal cortex
    • → subjective feeling
    • → malaise
    • → Fear
  • Nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis
    • → Startle reaction
  • Locus coeruleus
    • → Attention
    • Arousal
    • Vigilance
  • Ventral tegmentum
    • → Attention
    • Arousal
    • Vigilance
  • Raphe seeds
    • → Attention
    • Arousal
    • Vigilance
  • Vagus nerve (dorsal nucleus)
    • → Parasympathetic nervous system
      • → Bladder emptying / micturition
      • → Bowel movement / defecation
      • → Stomach ulcers
  • Parabrachial nucleus
    • → Increase in respiratory rate (wheezing)
  • Unnamed mediation channel
    • → Pain perception6
    • → Hunger perception6
    • → Thirst perception6
Diese Seite wurde am 08.08.2022 zuletzt aktualisiert.