Dear readers of ADxS.org, please forgive the disruption.

ADxS.org needs about $53200 in 2024. In 2023 we received donations from third parties of about $ 32200. Unfortunately, 99.8% of our readers do not donate. If everyone who reads this request makes a small contribution, our fundraising campaign for 2024 would be over after a few days. This donation request is displayed 19,000 times a week, but only 40 people donate. If you find ADxS.org useful, please take a minute and support ADxS.org with your donation. Thank you!

Since 01.06.2021 ADxS.org is supported by the non-profit ADxS e.V..

$3391 of $53200 - as of 2024-02-01
6%
Header Image
Symptom development in children by age and frequency

Sitemap

Symptom development in children by age and frequency

The symptoms of ADHD vary according to age, from infancy to adulthood.
In infancy, early symptoms such as restlessness, increased activity and sleep problems may indicate an increased risk of ADHD.
Symptoms in infancy include distractibility, chaotic play behavior and motor problems.
In preschool age, ADHD-I can show anxious and withdrawn behavior, while hyperactive and impulsive behavior is already noticeable in ADHD-HI.
At school age, further ADHD symptoms occur, such as attention problems, learning difficulties, emotional and social problems.
In adolescence, ADHD can be associated with increased risk-taking behavior and addiction.
In adulthood, earlier hyperactivity decreases and inner restlessness becomes more visible. Affective comorbidities such as depression or anxiety disorders can also occur. ADHD can also first manifest itself in adulthood, particularly in women from their late 30s onwards.

On average, people with ADHD have more ADHD symptoms than those without. However, the diagnosis is not only based on the presence of certain symptoms, but also on their intensity and long-term presence in various areas of life. It is important to differentiate ADHD from temporary stress or strain.

1. Symptom development of ADHD-HI (with hyperactivity) by age

1.1. Infancy - early symptoms of ADHD

One study was able to distinguish those with a high genetic risk of ADHD (older siblings or parents with ADHD) from those without a genetic risk of ADHD based on behavior (primarily increased activity and impulsivity and more frequently reported behavior and temperament problems) in children 1 month of age.1

The following early symptoms in infants correlate with an increased risk of ADHD in later years:

  • Restlessness, hypermotoric
    • Restlessness((
      • Approx. 60 % of children show extreme restlessness2
      • Restlessness at 6 months correlated with ADHD symptoms at 37 and 54 months, independent of the early symptom of shortened sleep duration3
    • Uninterrupted urge to move2
    • Inexhaustible energy4
    • No crawling, early walking5
    • Restless, unbalanced5
    • Playing time shortened5
    • Difficulties in establishing a calm waking state4
  • Sleep
    • Unstable wake and sleep rhythm2
    • Superficial sleep, wide awake5
    • Short sleeper4
      • Normal sleepers before 18 months showed significantly fewer ADHD symptoms at the age of 37 months than long-term short sleepers3
    • Regulatory problems (excessive crying, sleep or feeding problems) that were co-occurring (multiple) or persistent at 5, 20 or 56 months of age predicted increased internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020) and overall behavioural problems (p = .001), especially more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant (p < .001) and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than in children who never had regulatory problems. The risk of an ADHD diagnosis was increased (p = .017), especially of the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). IQ was not correlated.6
  • Crying, screaming
    • Particularly frequent, persistent and shrill crying24
    • Insatiable crying at times5
    • Regulatory problems (excessive crying, sleep or feeding problems) that were co-occurring (multiple) or persistent at 5, 20 or 56 months of age predicted increased internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020) and overall behavioural problems (p = .001), especially more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant (p < .001) and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than in children who never had regulatory problems. The risk of an ADHD diagnosis was increased (p = .017), especially of the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). IQ was not correlated.6
  • Feeding problems
    • Drinking problems54
    • Hot eater4
    • Frequent colic4
    • Regulatory problems (excessive crying, sleep or feeding problems) that were co-occurring (multiple) or persistent at 5, 20 or 56 months of age predicted increased internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020) and overall behavioural problems (p = .001), especially more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant (p < .001) and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than in children who never had regulatory problems. The risk of an ADHD diagnosis was increased (p = .017), especially of the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). IQ was not correlated.6
  • Cleanliness education often delayed2
  • Language development often delayed2
  • Stroking is not enjoyed5
  • Frequent skin allergies5
  • Higher level of negative affect (already at the age of 3 months)7
    • The results for positive affect did not reach statistical significance
    • Simultaneous observation of the progression of positive and negative emotionality can generate additional information
    • Negative affect only correlated with ADHD symptoms in childhood if moderate, stable or low positive affect was present at the same time

1.2. Infant age (1 - 3 years)

  • Distractibility4
  • Chaotic and destructive, less goal-oriented play behavior2
  • Sleep problems
    • Sleep-through problems in toddlers aged 1 to 3 years were a stronger predictor of later ADHD than sleep duration.8
    • Sleep disorders4
    • Regulatory problems (excessive crying, sleep or feeding problems) that were co-occurring (multiple) or persistent at 5, 20 or 56 months of age predicted increased internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020) and overall behavioural problems (p = .001), especially more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant (p < .001) and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than in children who never had regulatory problems. The risk of an ADHD diagnosis was increased (p = .017), especially of the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). IQ was not correlated.6
  • Gross motor problems
    • Often falls over his own legs9
    • Mouth motor skills noticeable9
      • Mouth is often open
      • Drools easily
    • Desire for violent movements4
    • Constantly on the move4
    • Sometimes very skillful motor skills4
  • Playing time shortened9
    • Changes employment frequently
    • Does not finish the game
  • Learning problems
    • No learning gain through negative experiences2
    • Learns to dress with difficulty9
    • Language development delayed910
    • Conversion problems9
    • Adaptation problems9
  • Can’t wait9
    • Until it is your turn
  • Sensitivity changes
    • Highly sensitive or hyposensitive to external stimuli9
  • Novelty Seeking
    • Stimulation hunger4
    • Enormously curious4
    • Daring, increased risk of accidents4
  • ADHD-HI specific:
    • Group incompetence and disruptive behavior, outsider role2
    • Constant fidgeting and interrupting in the chair circle2
    • Strong urge to move leads to danger to self and others2
    • No awareness of danger2
    • Impulsiveness
      • Impulsivity at the age of 2 correlated with ADHD symptoms at the age of 3.11
    • Irritability
      • Significant irritability at 3 years of age was predictive of clinical diagnoses
        • At the age of 6 years (depression, oppositional behavior disorder and functional impairment. Irritability also correlated with parental depression and anxiety)12
        • At age 9 (current and lifetime anxiety disorders at age nine, current and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder and current separation anxiety, depressive symptoms, disruptive behavior, major functional impairment, and use of outpatient treatment)13
        • Between the ages of 12 and 15 (internalizing and externalizing disorders in adolescence, anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as major functional impairments, in particular poorer peer relationships, poorer physical health, use of antidepressants)14
    • Emotional dysregulation
      • Aggression
        • Increased aggression2
        • Little tyrant4
        • Destruction of games and toys4
      • Anger
        • Frequent / uncontrollable fits of rage24
      • Affect spasms4
      • Affectively unstable, mostly pronounced defiant phase4
  • ADHD-I specific:
    • Remarkably calm and well-behaved9
    • Overanxious, clinging, very affectionate9
  • A meta-study found that symptoms in the first 36 months were predictive of later ADHD in childhood:15
    • Activity level (k = 18) in infancy and toddlerhood correlated moderately with ADHD (ADHD-C only)
    • Sustained attention correlated moderately negatively with ADHD (all subtypes)
    • Negative emotionality correlated moderately with ADHD (all subtypes)

1.3. Preschool age (4 - 6 years)

1.3.1. ADHD-I at preschool age (without hyperactivity)

  • Often anxious9
  • Often unsafe9
  • Learning difficulties
    • Problems listening9
    • Slow comprehension9
    • Often believes he cannot cope with the task9
    • Slow language acquisition, confuses letters9
  • Gross motor skills
    • Conspicuous oral motor skills9
    • Speaks indistinctly9
    • Does not like to paint or do handicrafts9
    • Motor problems9
    • Difficulties learning to swim9
    • Difficulties learning to ride a bike
    • Balance problems
    • Activities slowed down or too fast9
  • Fine motor skills impaired16
  • Withdrawn social behavior
    • Often plays alone9
    • Little contact with children of the same age9
    • Withdrawal tendencies in groups9
      • Kindergarten
      • Circle of chairs
    • Gets bored quickly9
  • Often loses and forgets things9
  • Regulatory problems (excessive crying, sleep or feeding problems) that were co-occurring (multiple) or persistent at 5, 20 or 56 months of age predicted increased internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020) and overall behavioural problems (p = .001), especially more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant (p < .001) and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than in children who never had regulatory problems. The risk of an ADHD diagnosis was increased (p = .017), especially of the hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). IQ was not correlated.6

1.3.2. ADHD at preschool age (with hyperactivity)

  • Motor hyperactivity
    • Motor restlessness9
    • Always on the move9
  • Impulsiveness
    • Gets excited quickly and strongly9
    • Reacts spontaneously and rashly9
    • Asks a lot9
      • Often does not wait for answers9
    • Does not adhere to rules9
      • Often forgets rules again17
    • Grumbles quickly9
  • Attention problems
    • Often only become apparent at an older age (school years)
    • Cannot listen for long9
    • Forgets quickly9
    • Loses a lot9
  • Aggression
    • Often as a comorbidity
    • Especially in case of uncertainty9
  • Gross motor skills
    • Conspicuous oral motor skills18
    • Language problems
      • Speaks indistinctly9
      • Stammer9
      • Difficulties with some consonants
    • Does not like to paint or do handicrafts18
    • Holds pens cramped9
    • Presses too hard9
    • Coloring or cutting out shapes makes it difficult9
    • Difficulties learning to swim
    • Difficulties learning to ride a bike
    • Balance problems
  • Fine motor skills impaired16
  • Social behavior
    • Strong sense of justice9
    • High ambition in sports and games9
    • Often wants to determine9
    • Eager for social services9
    • Quickly offended19
      • Rejection Sensitivity
  • Impatience
    • With itself9
    • With others9
  • Wets more frequently9
    • More often during the day than at night
  • Sleep
    • Frequently falling asleep late9
    • Needs little sleep9
  • Executive function problems at preschool age
    • Correlated with more externalizing and attention symptoms, but fewer internalizing symptoms at the age of 8 to 13 years20
    • Similar for an older age group21

1.4. School years (6 to 15 years)

ADHD symptoms now become fully apparent.2

Sleep problems at the age of 8 to 9 years increased the risk of ADHD at the age of 10 to 11 years by 18 to 20 %22

1.4.1. ADHD-I at school age (without hyperactivity)

  • Emotional problems
    • Often anxious9
    • Often unsafe9
    • Dares to do nothing9
    • Rejection Sensitivity
      • Easily offended9
      • Cries quickly9
      • Emotionally sensitive9
      • Poorly tolerates criticism9
      • Feels unloved9
      • Feels misunderstood9
  • Attention and learning difficulties
    • Problems listening9
    • Easily distractible9
    • Forgets a lot9
    • Overhears a lot9
    • Unfocused9
      • Unless something is of particular interest
    • Dreamy9
    • Slowly9
    • Inflexible thinking9
    • Takes a very long time to do homework9
    • Cannot do homework alone9
  • Gross and fine motor problems
    • Writing problems
    • Coloring unclean9
    • Speaks indistinctly9
  • Social behavior
    • Is easily annoyed9
    • Can defend himself badly9
    • Delayed development of social maturity9
    • Gets bored quickly9
  • Often loses and forgets things
  • Somatization tendencies
    • Frequent headaches9
    • Frequent abdominal pain9

1.4.2. ADHD-HI at school age (with hyperactivity)

  • Social behavior
    • Integration into the class group very difficult2
  • Aggression
    • Hits frequently, is often beaten by others2
  • Risk behavior
    • Can assess dangers poorly9
    • 85 % of accidents on the way to school2
  • Attention problems become recognizable for the first time
    • From the age of 7 at the earliest
    • Up to the age of 14, 15 years
  • Motor hyperactivity
    • Motor restlessness9
    • Always on the move9
    • Fidgets a lot9
  • Gross motor skills
    • Poor power metering9
  • Impulsiveness
    • Gets excited quickly and strongly9
    • Reacts spontaneously and rashly9
    • Interrupts others
    • Answers before the question is finished9
    • Is often loud9
  • High sensitivity
    • Is often sensitive to noise itself17
  • Attention problems
    • Often only become apparent at an older age (school years)
    • Cannot listen for long9
    • Forgets quickly9
    • Loses a lot9
    • Concentration span limited
      • Frequently switches back and forth between tasks / activities9
    • Often paints on the side
    • Difficulties starting homework9
    • Interrupts homework frequently9
    • Good powers of observation9
      • Notices a lot9
      • Can see through others well9
  • Learning problems
    • Makes mistakes again and again
    • Does not learn from mistakes9
  • Gross motor skills
    • Conspicuous oral motor skills18
    • Language problems
      • Speaks indistinctly9
      • Stammer9
      • Difficulties with some consonants
    • Does not like to paint or do handicrafts18
    • Holds pens cramped9
    • Presses too hard9
    • Coloring or cutting out shapes makes it difficult9
    • Difficulties learning to swim
    • Difficulties learning to ride a bike
    • Balance problems
  • Emotional dysregulation
    • Rejection Sensitivity
      • Quickly feels unfairly treated9
  • Social behavior
    • Strong sense of justice9
      • Altruistic behavior
    • Often wants to determine9
    • Gets on worse with peers than with younger or older people9
  • Collects useless things9
  • Sleep
    • Often fall asleep late

1.5. Adolescence (from 15 years)

  • Motor hyperactivity is reduced2
  • Inner and outer restlessness9
  • Impulsiveness and reduced attention remain2
  • Orientation towards socially marginalized groups2
  • Risk of developing an addiction2
  • Willingness to engage in high-risk behavior2
  • Frequent accidents2
  • Drop in performance under stress9
  • Organizational problems9
  • Low determination9
  • Spotty handwriting9

1.6. Adulthood

  • Hardly any motor hyperactivity, instead inner restlessness, feeling driven23
  • Attention problems subside somewhat
  • Emotional problems / affective comorbidities on the rise
    • Depression
    • Anxiety disorders
  • Increased risk of addiction, disorders in social behavior24
  • Anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems25
  • Criminal offenses 26
  • Increased tendency to have accidents27
  • Worse professional position28

2. Symptom frequency and symptom intensity in ADHD

The diagnosis of ADHD is not based on the presence of a specific type of symptom that is exclusive to ADHD (categorical), but on the number of symptoms that can originate from ADHD and their intensity (dimensional).2930

  • In a collection of symptoms presented by Barkley31
    • Non-affected people often experience 1 to 2 of the 18 symptoms on average, i.e. around 5 %
    • On average, ADHD sufferers often have 12 of the 18 symptoms mentioned, i.e. around 66%.31
  • In the online test we designed ourselves ADHD online tests
    have
    • According to their own assessment, unaffected test subjects had an average of just under 8 out of 32 possible symptoms (25 %)
    • Subjects with a confirmed ADHD diagnosis around 24 of the 32 possible symptoms (75 %)
  • Hardly anyone affected has all the symptoms “often”, and it is almost impossible to identify which symptoms occur more frequently together.

The symptoms must occur over a longer period of time and in several areas of life. They usually first become apparent before the age of 12. However, more and more cases of late onset ADHD are being recognized in which there were no sufficiently severe symptoms in adolescence to justify a diagnosis. This mainly affects women in their late 30s.
The fact that symptoms must persist for longer and in different areas of life serves to distinguish ADHD as a permanent disorder from the symptoms of merely temporary (stress) exposure to temporary stressors.

3. Ethnic and cultural differences

When adults diagnose ADHD in children, the different ethnic and cultural backgrounds should be taken into account.32


  1. Miller, Iosif, Bell, Farquhar-Leicester, Hatch, Hill, Hill, Solis, Young, Ozonoff (2020): Can Familial Risk for ADHD Be Detected in the First Two Years of Life? J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2020 Jan 17;1-13. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2019.1709196. PMID: 31951755.

  2. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf

  3. Stott J, Coleman E, Hamilton A, Blackwell J, Ball HL (2023): Exploring the Longitudinal Relationship Between Short Sleep Duration, Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in a Biethnic Population of Children Aged Between 6 and 61 Months: A Born in Bradford Study. J Atten Disord. 2023 May 8:10870547231168433. doi: 10.1177/10870547231168433. PMID: 37154203.

  4. Brandau (2004): Das ADHS-Puzzle; Systemisch-evolutionäre Aspekte, Unfallrisiko und klinische Perspektiven. Seite 39

  5. Simchen (2015): Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl., S. 11

  6. Wolke D, Baumann N, Jaekel J, Pyhälä R, Heinonen K, Räikkönen K, Sorg C, Bilgin A (2023): The association of early regulatory problems with behavioral problems and cognitive functioning in adulthood: two cohorts in two countries. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2023 Jan 5. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13742. PMID: 36601777. n = 759

  7. Gustafsson HC, Nolvi S, Sullivan EL, Rasmussen JM, Gyllenhammer LE, Entringer S, Wadhwa PD, O’Connor TG, Karlsson L, Karlsson H, Korja R, Buss C, Graham AM, Nigg JT (2021): Early development of negative and positive affect: Implications for ADHD symptomatology across three birth cohorts. Dev Psychopathol. 2021 Dec;33(5):1837-1848. doi: 10.1017/s0954579421001012. PMID: 36238202; PMCID: PMC9555229. n = 191

  8. Carpena, Munhoz, Xavier, Rohde, Santos, Del-Ponte, Barros, Matijasevich, Tovo-Rodrigues (2019): The Role of Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems During Childhood in the Development of ADHD in Adolescence: Findings From a Population-Based Birth Cohort. J Atten Disord. 2019 Oct 16:1087054719879500. doi: 10.1177/1087054719879500.

  9. Simchen (2015): 1.1. Viele fragen: “Woran erkenne ich ADS?” In: Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl.

  10. Goh, Yang, Tsotsi, Qiu, Chong, Tan, Pei-Chi, Broekman, Rifkin-Graboi (2020): Mitigation of a Prospective Association Between Early Language Delay at Toddlerhood and ADHD Among Bilingual Preschoolers: Evidence from the GUSTO Cohort. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2020 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s10802-019-00607-5.

  11. Gagne, Asherson, Saudino (2020): A Twin Study of Inhibitory Control at Age Two and ADHD Behavior Problems at Age Three. Behav Genet. 2020 Jul;50(4):289-300. doi: 10.1007/s10519-020-09997-5. PMID: 32162153.

  12. Dougherty LR, Smith VC, Bufferd SJ, Stringaris A, Leibenluft E, Carlson GA, Klein DN (2013): Preschool irritability: longitudinal associations with psychiatric disorders at age 6 and parental psychopathology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;52(12):1304-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.007. PMID: 24290463; PMCID: PMC3860177.

  13. Dougherty LR, Smith VC, Bufferd SJ, Kessel E, Carlson GA, Klein DN (2015): Preschool irritability predicts child psychopathology, functional impairment, and service use at age nine. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;56(9):999-1007. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12403. Erratum in: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020 Nov;61(11):1277. PMID: 26259142; PMCID: PMC4531384.

  14. Sorcher LK, Goldstein BL, Finsaas MC, Carlson GA, Klein DN, Dougherty LR (2022): Preschool Irritability Predicts Adolescent Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: A 12-Year Prospective Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022 Apr;61(4):554-564.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.08.016. PMID: 34481916; PMCID: PMC9951107.

  15. Joseph HM, Lorenzo NE, Fisher N, Novick DR, Gibson C, Rothenberger SD, Foust JE, Chronis-Tuscano A (2023): Research Review: A systematic review and meta-analysis of infant and toddler temperament as predictors of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2023 Jan 4. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.13753. PMID: 36599815. METASTUDIE

  16. Bowler A, Arichi T, Fearon P, Meaburn E, Begum-Ali J, Pascoe G, Johnson MH, Jones EJH, Ronald A (2023): PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PRESCHOOL FINE MOTOR SKILLS AND LATER NEURODEVELOPMENT, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, AND EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT. Biol Psychiatry. 2023 Dec 1:S0006-3223(23)01746-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2023.11.017. PMID: 38043695. n = 9.625

  17. Simchen (2015): 1.1. Viele fragen: “Woran erkenne ich ADS?” In: Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl.

  18. Simchen (2015): Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl., S. 13

  19. [Simchen (2015): 1.1. Viele fragen: “Woran erkenne ich ADS?” In: Die vielen Gesichter des ADS, 4. Aufl.](https://www.kohlhammer.de/wms/instances/KOB/appDE/E-Books/Die-vielen-Gesichter-des-ADS-978-3-17-026957-6

  20. Seikku T, Saarelainen T, Kuha T, Maasalo K, Huhdanpää H, Aronen ET (2023): Executive Functions, Psychiatric Symptoms and ADHD in Child Psychiatric Patients-Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations from Preschool to School Age. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2023 Dec 12. doi: 10.1007/s10578-023-01635-5. PMID: 38085411. n = 65

  21. Porter BM, Roe MA, Mitchell ME, Church JA (2023): A longitudinal examination of executive function abilities, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and puberty in adolescence. Child Dev. 2023 Dec 12. doi: 10.1111/cdev.14057. PMID: 38085108.

  22. González-Safont L, Rebagliato M, Arregi A, Carrasco P, Guxens M, Vegas O, Julvez J, Estarlich M (2023): Sleep problems at ages 8-9 and ADHD symptoms at ages 10-11: evidence in three cohorts from INMA study. Eur J Pediatr. 2023 Sep 18. doi: 10.1007/s00431-023-05145-3. PMID: 37721582. n = 1.244

  23. Barkley: Das große Handbuch für Erwachsene mit ADHS, 2010, Huber

  24. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf unter Verweis auf New York-Studie 1985 -1991

  25. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf unter Verweis auf Shekim et al. 1990

  26. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf unter Verweis auf Iowa-Studie 1983

  27. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf unter Verweis auf Beck et al. 1996

  28. www.sonderpaedagogik-k.uni-wuerzburg.de/fileadmin/06040400/downloads/sopaed2_ws0304_ads-adhs.pdf unter Verweis auf Warnke & Remschmidt 1990

  29. Edel, Vollmoeller (2006): Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung bei Erwachsenen, Springer, Seite 52

  30. so auch Barkley, Steinhausen, Krause und viele andere

  31. Barkley: Das große Handbuch für Erwachsene mit ADHS, 2010, Huber, Seite 46; n = 252

  32. DuPaul (2020): Adult Ratings of Child ADHD Symptoms: Importance of Race, Role, and Context. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2020 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s10802-019-00615-5.

Diese Seite wurde am 10.02.2024 zuletzt aktualisiert.