In this article, we summarize - for the sake of completeness - other medications that have been mentioned in individual publications in connection with ADHD but are not widely used or discussed for the treatment of ADHD.
1. Other primary dopaminergic drugs
Use in mentally retarded children with ADHD-HI and aggressive behaviors (according to the German Medical Association).
Dosage: low (0.5 to 1.5 mg/day divided into two doses).
Risperidone blocks (albeit only 1/3 compared to haloperidol (brand: Haldol)) the dopamine D2 receptor and thus has antipsychotic effects.
A placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of risperidone or divalproex sodium in children with ADHD in relation to residual aggressive behavior after optimal adjustment to stimulants. A high response rate during the open-label stimulant optimization phase of the study suggests that rigorous titration of stimulant medication and concurrent behavioral therapy may avoid the need for additional medication. If this did not already result in symptom remission of the aggressive behavior, risperidone such as divalproex sodium were effective adjunctive therapies. Risperidone was associated with weight gain. Another study of divalproex reached similar results.
The mention in the context of ADHD probably comes from a temporary applicability in massive aggression. Positive effects have been reported in cases of comorbid aggression in addition to ADHD.
For the problem of D2 receptor blockade in ADHD, see ⇒ General notes on antipsychotics as D2 antagonists in ADHD.
In any case, risperidone is not suitable for the classic medication of ADHD (without underachievement or aggressiveness).
1.2. Isoproterenol / Isoprenaline
Isoproterenol is a beta-adrenoreceptor agonist. Above a certain dosage, isoproterenol strongly increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.
Use as an ADHD drug little known.
1.3. Gingko extract EGb 761
One study claimed a selective increase in dopamine levels in the PFC for 40 to 180 minutes after ingestion by up to 63%, but only in the context of long-term ingestion, not short-term administration of EGb 761 (100mg/kg). At the same time, norepinephrine levels had increased by up to 20%. Serotonin levels did not change. It had caused an improvement in learning abilities.
Whether an improvement is produced on ADHD symptoms, or whether, as with levodopa, which also increases dopamine levels, there is no effect on ADHD, has not been described.
Use as a medication for ADHD should not be made prior to further investigation, especially since the study does not appear to have been conducted in a peer-reviewed journal, indicating that a rigorous review process was not conducted as is customary in peer-reviewed journals.
Studies address a reduction in hyperactivity symptoms by Baikalin in rats.
Baikalin, like MPH, appears to be able to regulate motor skills as well as learning and memory abilities in SHR rats (animal model of ADHD-C), thereby improving the core symptoms of ADHD-C, i.e., hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, and inattention. Baikalin has a dose-dependent effect. Compared to MPH, it takes a longer time to exert its therapeutic effect.
Baikalin could exert a therapeutic effect in ADHD through
- Increase dopamine levels in the striatum (whereas MPH increases dopamine in the PFC and striatum)
- Upregulation of the AC / cAMP / PKA pathway
The authors of all available sources seem to be the same persons or the same main author. Publications by other authors on Baikalin in ADHD could not be found. Prior to verification by several different author teams and review in humans, the results should not be used to try Baikalin as a medication in humans.
Trade name: AN1
Amphetamine / methamphetamine-like agent that is metabolized by the body to amphetamine. Mentioned as an ADHD drug, but completely uncommon and hardly documented.
Pemoline is said to have had a comparable effect to MPH.
It was withdrawn from the market in 2006 due to liver-damaging effects.
Former trade names: Cylert, Stimul, Tradon
2. Other drugs with primarily other modes of action
- Predominantly serotonergic.
- Sigma-1 antagonist
- Worsens psychotic symptoms
Use of sertraline as an ADHD medication little known.
2.2. Axura / Ebixa
Axura /Ebixa are dementia medications.
They are predominantly glutamatergic in action.
As ADHD medications, they are hardly used.
Opipramol is a primarily anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) tricyclic antidepressant.
Opipramol binds strongly to sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors, but does not inhibit reuptake of biogenic amines like usual TCAs. Subtherapeutic doses decrease sigma-2 receptor density.
A study of brexpiprazole use in stimulant nonresponders found no significant improvement in ADHD symptoms.